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Analisis Variansi


In analytical work there are often more than two means to be
compared. Some possible situations are: comparing the mean
concentration of protein in solution for samples stored under
different conditions; comparing the mean results obtained for the
concentration of an analyte by several different methods; and
comparing the mean titration results obtained by several different
experimentalists using the same apparatus.
In all these examples there are two possible sources of variation.
The first, which is always present, is due to the random error in
measurement. The second possible source of variation is due to
what is known as a controlled or fixed-effect factor. For the
examples above, the controlled factors are respectively the
conditions under which the solution was stored, the method of
analysis used, and the experimentalist carrying out the titration.

Purpose of ANOVA
1. Analysis of variance (frequently abbreviated to ANOVA) is an
extremely powerful statistical technique which can be used to separate
and estimate the different causes of variation.
2. ANOVA can also be used in situations where there is more than one
source of random variation
3. In addition to the random error in the measurement of the purity, there
may also be variation in the purity of the samples from different parts of
the barrel. Since the samples were chosen at random, this variation will
be random and is thus sometimes known as a random-effect factor.
4. ANOVA can be used to separate and estimate the sources of variation.
Both types of statistical analysis described above, i.e. where there is
one factor, either controlled or random, in addition to the random error
in measurement, are known as one-way ANOVA.

Comparison of Several means

Table 3.2 shows the results obtained in an investigation into the stability of a
fluorescent reagent stored under different conditions. The values given are the
fluorescence signals (in arbitrary units) from dilute solutions of equal concentration.
Three replicate measurements were made on each sample. The table shows that the
mean values for the four samples are different. However, we know that because of
random error, even if the true value which we are trying to measure is unchanged, the
sample mean may vary from one sample to the next. ANOVA tests whether the
difference between the sample means is too great to be explained by the random

Figure 3.2 shows a dot-plot comparing the results obtained in the different
conditions. This suggests that there is little difference between conditions A and B
but that conditions C and D differ both from A and B and from each other.
The problem can be generalized to consider h samples each with n members as
in Table 3.3 where xij is the jth measurement of the ith sample. The means of the
samples are , , . . . , and the mean of all the values grouped together is X. The
null hypothesis adopted is that all the samples are drawn from a population with
mean and variance . On the basis of this hypothesis can be estimated in
two ways, one involving the variation within the samples and the other the
variation between the samples.