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# NUST Institute of Civil Engineering

CE 806

of reinforcement
Dr. Wasim Khaliq

## In reinforced concrete beams it is

assumed that strain in the embedded
reinforcing bar is the same as that in
the surrounding concrete.
Therefore, it is essential that bond
force is developed on the interface
between concrete and steel to prevent
significant slip from occurring at the
interface.

## Source of Bond Strength

Mechanical friction between steel and concrete
Slip induced interlocking of natural roughness of the bar with
concrete
End anchorage, hooks : providing tie arch action even for bond
broken beam.
M max
T
Force in the steel
jd
Deformed bar: providing bond force via the shoulders of the
projecting ribs bear on the surrounding concrete.

## Bond Stress Based on Simple Cracked Section

Analysis
dM
dT
jd
For local equilibrium, change in bar force
Udx dT = bond force at the contact surface
dT
1 dM
U

dx
jd dx
V
U
jd * Elastic crack equation

## U = local average unit bond stress

jd = internal lever arm between tensile
and compressive force resultants
dx = short piece of length of beam

## Actual Distribution of Flexural Bond Stress

Pure bending case
Concrete fails to resist tensile stresses only
where the actual crack is located. Steel T is
maximum and
T max = M / jd
Between cracks , concrete does resist
moderate amount of tension introduced by
bond.
U is proportional to the rate of change of bar
force, and highest where the slope of the
steel force curve is greatest.
Very high local bond stress adjacent to the
crack.

According to simple crack sectional theory,
T is proportional to the moment diagram
and U is proportional to shear force
diagram.
In actual, T is less than the simple analysis
prediction everywhere except at the actual
cracks.
Variation in tensile force
Similarly, U is equal with simple analysis
prediction only at the location where slopes
of the steel force diagrams are equal. If the
slope is greater than assumed (may result in
bond failure), bond stress is greater; if the
slope is less bond stress is less.

## A bar embedded in concrete develops bond by adhesion to

concrete and small amount of friction.

Both of adhesion and friction are quickly lost when the bar is
loaded in tension, particularly because the diameter of the bar
decreases slightly, due to Poissons ratio.

## Resultantly, the bond is transferred by bearing on the

deformations of the bar (thus smooth bars generally not used ).

## Equal and opposite bearing stresses on concrete result in

circumferential tensile stresses in the concrete around the bar.

Eventually, the concrete will split parallel to the bar, and crack will
propagate to the surface of beam.

## Ultimate Bond Strength and Development Length

Types of bond failure
Direct pullout of bars
(small diameter bars are used with
sufficiently large concrete cover
distances and bar spacing)
Splitting of the concrete along the bar
(cover or bar spacing is insufficient to
resist the lateral concrete tension
resulting from the wedging effect of bar
deformations)

Bond Failures

## Direct pull out

For sufficiently confined bar, adhesive bond and friction are overcome as the tensile
force on the bar is increased. Concrete eventually crushes locally ahead of the bar
deformation and bar pullout results.
When pull out resistance is overcome or when splitting has spread all the way to
the end of an unanchored bar, complete bond failure occurs.

Splitting
Splitting comes from wedging action when the ribs of the deformed bars bear
against the concrete.
Splitting in vertical plane
Splitting in horizontal plane: frequently begins at a diagonal crack in connection
with dowel action. Shear and bond failures are often interrelated.

## Local bond failure

Large local variation of bond stress caused by flexural and diagonal cracks
beam.
Results in small slip and some widening of cracks and increase of deflections.
Harmless as long as the failure does not propagate all along the bar.

Development Length

Development length is the length of embedment necessary to develop the full tensile
strength of bar, controlled by either pullout or splitting.
The development length l d , is the shortest length of bar in which the bar stress can
increase from zero to the yield strength fy
In fig, let
maximum M at a and zero at support
fs at a is T = As fs

Development length concept total tension force must be transferred from the bar to the
concrete in the distance l by bond stress on the surface.
To fully develop the strength of bar T = Asfy the distance l must be equal to l d =
development length

Safety against bond failure: the length of the bar from any point of given steel stress
to its nearby end must be at least equal to its development length. If the length is
inadequate, special anchorage such as hooks must be provided.

## Tensile strength of concrete

Cover distance
Bar spacing
Lateral reinforcement
Vertical bar location relative to beam depth (bond strength reduced with
placement of bars higher from bottom)
Epoxy coated bars or not (bond strength reduced due to reduced friction of
epoxy coating)
Excess reinforcement
Bar diameter (smaller diameter bars need lower development length

Development Length

## Bond stress avg acts on the bar to

maintain equilibrium

as
The development length thus can thus be expressed in terms of ultimate value of average bond
stress as

Development Length

Consider

## a circular prism representing the zones of highest radial tensile stresses

Splitting is assumed to occur when the maximum stress in the concrete is equal to
the tensile strength of the concrete, fct.
Thus equilibrium shows

K is the ratio of the average tensile to the maximum tensile stress and equals 0.5 for
the triangular stress distribution
The avg bond stress avg equals p

## Tensile Strength of Concrete

Development Length
Substituting

in
gives

Reinforcement

Limits

## (c + ktr)/db > 2.5 pullout failure

(c + ktr)/db < 1.5 splitting failure
are not to be greater than 100 psi.

## Simplified Equations for Development Length

(c + ktr) / db can only be taken as 1.5 following two cases are met

## Further Simplification for Development Length

Example

Hooked Anchorages

Crushing

Crushing

## Development of standard hooks in tension

The confining reinforcement factor r

ldh must be
modified by
applicable
modification
factors:

## Requirements for Transverse Reinforcement

Transverse Steel Essential:
When hooks required at the ends of SS
beam
Discontinuous end of beam with small
cover distance like ending at column
Bars anchored in a short cantilever

## Development length dt for headed deformed bars

Contd

Mechanical Anchorage
In cases where headed bars do not
meet the requirements specified or
where bars are terminated by
mechanisms such as welded plates or
other manufactured devices, ACI C
allows such devices to be used to
develop the reinforcement if the
adequacy of the devices is established
by tests.

Example
Development of hooked bars in tension. Referring to the beam-column joint shown,
No. 11 (No. 36) negative bars are to be extended into the column and terminated in a
standard 90 hook, keeping 2 in. clear to the outside face of the column. The column
width in the direction of beam width is 16 in. Find the minimum length of embedment of
the hook past the column face, and specify the hook details

Example
Excess rft: Asreq/Asprovided=2.9/3.12=0.93

Problem 5.1

## Hooks as used for tension reinforcement are not effective in transferring

compression from bars to concrete and should be disregarded in determining
required embedment length.

## Basic and Modified

Compressive ldc as
per ACI 12.3

## Bar cut offs and dev of bars in flexure members

For economy, some of the bars can be terminated or cut off where they are no longer
needed.
Bar cut offs should be kept to a minimum to simplify design and construction,
particularly in zones where the bars are stressed in tension.
Cut off in a region of moderately high shear force cause a major stress
concentration

## Bar Cutoff and Bend Points in Beams

Theoretical points of cutoff or
bend
T = As fs = M/jd
T = function of (M)
continuous beam of fairly regular
span may be designed using moment
coefficients.
To determine cutoff points for
continuous beams, M diagram from
max span M and max support M are
drawn

100
90
80

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Moment (Mu)

70

10
0
90
80

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Moment (Mu)

70

## If cutoff points are in tension zone (to prevent formation of premature

flexural and diagonal tension cracks) no flexural bar shall be terminated
unless the following conditions are specified.

## Special Requirements near the Point of Zero

Moment

It is necessary to consider whenever the moments over the development length are
greater than those corresponding to a linear reduction to zero.
Bond force per unit length , u = dT / dx = dM / zdx, proportional to the slope of the
moment diagram.
Maximum bond forces u would occur at point of inflection and pullout resistance is
required.
Slope of M diagram at any point = V at that point
Let Mn = nominal flexural
strength provided by those
bars extend to the
point of inflection.

Structural Integrity
Provisions

## Structural Integrity Provisions

Lap Splices
Supplied Lengths
Bar # 5 - # 18 60 ft
Bar # 4 and below 20 to 40 ft

## Splices at points of maximum stress should be avoided

When used splices should be staggered
For #11 and smaller bars simple lapping of bars is made to a sufficient distance
to transfer stress by bond
Lapped bars a placed in contact and lightly wire bound
Alternate way is welding and mechanical devices
ACI does not allow lapped splices for > #11 bars
Except that #14 and #18 bars may be spliced in compression with #11 and
smaller bars

## Lap Splices in Tension

Stated in terms of development length - ld
For calculation of ld , the usual modification factors may be applied
but NOT the excess steel modification factor
Classification of lap splices in tension (based on minimum length of
lap required)
Class A lap splices 1.0 ld but not less than 12 in
Class B lap splices 1.3 ld but not less than 12 in

## Lap Splices in Compression

Mainly used in columns
Bars in columns are generally terminated just above each floor
Due to construction convenience avoid handling long column bars
To permit column steel area to reduce in steps

end

## As a design simplification, it is conservative to assume K tr= 0, even if

the transverse reinforcement is present. the term (c + K tr) / db in the
denominator of accounts for the effects of small cover, close bar
spacing and confinement provided by transverse reinforcement.

The ACI code gives simplified versions of eqn 5.4 for preselected
values of (c + Ktr) / db. However, the development length l d computed
by eqn 5.4 is mostly substantially shorter than development length
computed from simplified eqns.

## Anchorage Requirements for

Web Reinforcement

## For assumed (conservatively) uniformed slope of moment diagram Vu

towards the positive moment region, length a at M = Mn
a = Mn/Vu

ACI Code