on bond and development of steel in concrete

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Lec 5 CE 806 RCM Development, Anchorage and Splicing of Reinforcement

on bond and development of steel in concrete

© All Rights Reserved

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CE 806

of reinforcement

Dr. Wasim Khaliq

assumed that strain in the embedded

reinforcing bar is the same as that in

the surrounding concrete.

Therefore, it is essential that bond

force is developed on the interface

between concrete and steel to prevent

significant slip from occurring at the

interface.

Mechanical friction between steel and concrete

Slip induced interlocking of natural roughness of the bar with

concrete

End anchorage, hooks : providing tie arch action even for bond

broken beam.

M max

T

Force in the steel

jd

Deformed bar: providing bond force via the shoulders of the

projecting ribs bear on the surrounding concrete.

Analysis

dM

dT

jd

For local equilibrium, change in bar force

Udx dT = bond force at the contact surface

dT

1 dM

U

dx

jd dx

V

U

jd * Elastic crack equation

jd = internal lever arm between tensile

and compressive force resultants

dx = short piece of length of beam

Pure bending case

Concrete fails to resist tensile stresses only

where the actual crack is located. Steel T is

maximum and

T max = M / jd

Between cracks , concrete does resist

moderate amount of tension introduced by

bond.

U is proportional to the rate of change of bar

force, and highest where the slope of the

steel force curve is greatest.

Very high local bond stress adjacent to the

crack.

According to simple crack sectional theory,

T is proportional to the moment diagram

and U is proportional to shear force

diagram.

In actual, T is less than the simple analysis

prediction everywhere except at the actual

cracks.

Variation in tensile force

Similarly, U is equal with simple analysis

prediction only at the location where slopes

of the steel force diagrams are equal. If the

slope is greater than assumed (may result in

bond failure), bond stress is greater; if the

slope is less bond stress is less.

concrete and small amount of friction.

Both of adhesion and friction are quickly lost when the bar is

loaded in tension, particularly because the diameter of the bar

decreases slightly, due to Poissons ratio.

deformations of the bar (thus smooth bars generally not used ).

longitudinal and radial stress components leading to

circumferential tensile stresses in the concrete around the bar.

Eventually, the concrete will split parallel to the bar, and crack will

propagate to the surface of beam.

Types of bond failure

Direct pullout of bars

(small diameter bars are used with

sufficiently large concrete cover

distances and bar spacing)

Splitting of the concrete along the bar

(cover or bar spacing is insufficient to

resist the lateral concrete tension

resulting from the wedging effect of bar

deformations)

Bond Failures

For sufficiently confined bar, adhesive bond and friction are overcome as the tensile

force on the bar is increased. Concrete eventually crushes locally ahead of the bar

deformation and bar pullout results.

When pull out resistance is overcome or when splitting has spread all the way to

the end of an unanchored bar, complete bond failure occurs.

Splitting

Splitting comes from wedging action when the ribs of the deformed bars bear

against the concrete.

Splitting in vertical plane

Splitting in horizontal plane: frequently begins at a diagonal crack in connection

with dowel action. Shear and bond failures are often interrelated.

Large local variation of bond stress caused by flexural and diagonal cracks

immediately adjacent to cracks leads to this failure below the failure load of the

beam.

Results in small slip and some widening of cracks and increase of deflections.

Harmless as long as the failure does not propagate all along the bar.

Development Length

Development length is the length of embedment necessary to develop the full tensile

strength of bar, controlled by either pullout or splitting.

The development length l d , is the shortest length of bar in which the bar stress can

increase from zero to the yield strength fy

In fig, let

maximum M at a and zero at support

fs at a is T = As fs

Development length concept total tension force must be transferred from the bar to the

concrete in the distance l by bond stress on the surface.

To fully develop the strength of bar T = Asfy the distance l must be equal to l d =

development length

Safety against bond failure: the length of the bar from any point of given steel stress

to its nearby end must be at least equal to its development length. If the length is

inadequate, special anchorage such as hooks must be provided.

Cover distance

Bar spacing

Lateral reinforcement

Vertical bar location relative to beam depth (bond strength reduced with

placement of bars higher from bottom)

Epoxy coated bars or not (bond strength reduced due to reduced friction of

epoxy coating)

Excess reinforcement

Bar diameter (smaller diameter bars need lower development length

Development Length

maintain equilibrium

as

The development length thus can thus be expressed in terms of ultimate value of average bond

stress as

Development Length

Consider

Splitting is assumed to occur when the maximum stress in the concrete is equal to

the tensile strength of the concrete, fct.

Thus equilibrium shows

K is the ratio of the average tensile to the maximum tensile stress and equals 0.5 for

the triangular stress distribution

The avg bond stress avg equals p

Development Length

Substituting

in

gives

Reinforcement

Limits

(c + ktr)/db < 1.5 splitting failure

are not to be greater than 100 psi.

(c + ktr) / db can only be taken as 1.5 following two cases are met

Example

Hooked Anchorages

Crushing

Crushing

The confining reinforcement factor r

ldh must be

modified by

applicable

modification

factors:

Transverse Steel Essential:

When hooks required at the ends of SS

beam

Discontinuous end of beam with small

cover distance like ending at column

Bars anchored in a short cantilever

Contd

Mechanical Anchorage

In cases where headed bars do not

meet the requirements specified or

where bars are terminated by

mechanisms such as welded plates or

other manufactured devices, ACI C

allows such devices to be used to

develop the reinforcement if the

adequacy of the devices is established

by tests.

Example

Development of hooked bars in tension. Referring to the beam-column joint shown,

No. 11 (No. 36) negative bars are to be extended into the column and terminated in a

standard 90 hook, keeping 2 in. clear to the outside face of the column. The column

width in the direction of beam width is 16 in. Find the minimum length of embedment of

the hook past the column face, and specify the hook details

Example

Excess rft: Asreq/Asprovided=2.9/3.12=0.93

Problem 5.1

compression from bars to concrete and should be disregarded in determining

required embedment length.

Compressive ldc as

per ACI 12.3

For economy, some of the bars can be terminated or cut off where they are no longer

needed.

Bar cut offs should be kept to a minimum to simplify design and construction,

particularly in zones where the bars are stressed in tension.

Cut off in a region of moderately high shear force cause a major stress

concentration

Theoretical points of cutoff or

bend

T = As fs = M/jd

T = function of (M)

ACI Code: uniformly loaded,

continuous beam of fairly regular

span may be designed using moment

coefficients.

To determine cutoff points for

continuous beams, M diagram from

max span M and max support M are

drawn

100

90

80

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Moment (Mu)

70

10

0

90

80

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Moment (Mu)

70

flexural and diagonal tension cracks) no flexural bar shall be terminated

unless the following conditions are specified.

Moment

It is necessary to consider whenever the moments over the development length are

greater than those corresponding to a linear reduction to zero.

Bond force per unit length , u = dT / dx = dM / zdx, proportional to the slope of the

moment diagram.

Maximum bond forces u would occur at point of inflection and pullout resistance is

required.

Slope of M diagram at any point = V at that point

Let Mn = nominal flexural

strength provided by those

bars extend to the

point of inflection.

Structural Integrity

Provisions

Lap Splices

Supplied Lengths

Bar # 5 - # 18 60 ft

Bar # 4 and below 20 to 40 ft

When used splices should be staggered

For #11 and smaller bars simple lapping of bars is made to a sufficient distance

to transfer stress by bond

Lapped bars a placed in contact and lightly wire bound

Alternate way is welding and mechanical devices

ACI does not allow lapped splices for > #11 bars

Except that #14 and #18 bars may be spliced in compression with #11 and

smaller bars

Stated in terms of development length - ld

For calculation of ld , the usual modification factors may be applied

but NOT the excess steel modification factor

Classification of lap splices in tension (based on minimum length of

lap required)

Class A lap splices 1.0 ld but not less than 12 in

Class B lap splices 1.3 ld but not less than 12 in

Mainly used in columns

Bars in columns are generally terminated just above each floor

Due to construction convenience avoid handling long column bars

To permit column steel area to reduce in steps

end

the transverse reinforcement is present. the term (c + K tr) / db in the

denominator of accounts for the effects of small cover, close bar

spacing and confinement provided by transverse reinforcement.

The ACI code gives simplified versions of eqn 5.4 for preselected

values of (c + Ktr) / db. However, the development length l d computed

by eqn 5.4 is mostly substantially shorter than development length

computed from simplified eqns.

Web Reinforcement

towards the positive moment region, length a at M = Mn

a = Mn/Vu

ACI Code

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