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NUST Institute of Civil Engineering

CE 806

Reinforced Concrete Members

Development, anchorage and splicing

of reinforcement
Dr. Wasim Khaliq

Fundamentals of Flexural Bond

In reinforced concrete beams it is

assumed that strain in the embedded
reinforcing bar is the same as that in
the surrounding concrete.
Therefore, it is essential that bond
force is developed on the interface
between concrete and steel to prevent
significant slip from occurring at the

Beam before loading

Unrestrained slip between steel and concrete

Bond forces acting on concrete

Bond forces acting on steel

Source of Bond Strength

Weak chemical adhesion

Mechanical friction between steel and concrete
Slip induced interlocking of natural roughness of the bar with
End anchorage, hooks : providing tie arch action even for bond
broken beam.
M max
Force in the steel
Deformed bar: providing bond force via the shoulders of the
projecting ribs bear on the surrounding concrete.

Bond Stress Based on Simple Cracked Section

For local equilibrium, change in bar force
Udx dT = bond force at the contact surface
1 dM

jd dx
jd * Elastic crack equation

U = local average unit bond stress

jd = internal lever arm between tensile
and compressive force resultants
dx = short piece of length of beam

Actual Distribution of Flexural Bond Stress

Pure bending case
Concrete fails to resist tensile stresses only
where the actual crack is located. Steel T is
maximum and
T max = M / jd
Between cracks , concrete does resist
moderate amount of tension introduced by
U is proportional to the rate of change of bar
force, and highest where the slope of the
steel force curve is greatest.
Very high local bond stress adjacent to the

Beam under Transverse Loads

According to simple crack sectional theory,
T is proportional to the moment diagram
and U is proportional to shear force
In actual, T is less than the simple analysis
prediction everywhere except at the actual
Variation in tensile force
Similarly, U is equal with simple analysis
prediction only at the location where slopes
of the steel force diagrams are equal. If the
slope is greater than assumed (may result in
bond failure), bond stress is greater; if the
slope is less bond stress is less.

Variation in bond force

Bond stresses in cracked beam

True bond stresses in beam

Mechanism of bond transfer

A bar embedded in concrete develops bond by adhesion to

concrete and small amount of friction.

Both of adhesion and friction are quickly lost when the bar is
loaded in tension, particularly because the diameter of the bar
decreases slightly, due to Poissons ratio.

Resultantly, the bond is transferred by bearing on the

deformations of the bar (thus smooth bars generally not used ).

Equal and opposite bearing stresses on concrete result in

longitudinal and radial stress components leading to
circumferential tensile stresses in the concrete around the bar.

Eventually, the concrete will split parallel to the bar, and crack will
propagate to the surface of beam.

Mechanism of bond transfer

Ultimate Bond Strength and Development Length

Types of bond failure
Direct pullout of bars
(small diameter bars are used with
sufficiently large concrete cover
distances and bar spacing)
Splitting of the concrete along the bar
(cover or bar spacing is insufficient to
resist the lateral concrete tension
resulting from the wedging effect of bar

Bond Failures

Direct pull out

For sufficiently confined bar, adhesive bond and friction are overcome as the tensile
force on the bar is increased. Concrete eventually crushes locally ahead of the bar
deformation and bar pullout results.
When pull out resistance is overcome or when splitting has spread all the way to
the end of an unanchored bar, complete bond failure occurs.

Splitting comes from wedging action when the ribs of the deformed bars bear
against the concrete.
Splitting in vertical plane
Splitting in horizontal plane: frequently begins at a diagonal crack in connection
with dowel action. Shear and bond failures are often interrelated.

Local bond failure

Large local variation of bond stress caused by flexural and diagonal cracks
immediately adjacent to cracks leads to this failure below the failure load of the
Results in small slip and some widening of cracks and increase of deflections.
Harmless as long as the failure does not propagate all along the bar.

Development Length

Development length is the length of embedment necessary to develop the full tensile
strength of bar, controlled by either pullout or splitting.
The development length l d , is the shortest length of bar in which the bar stress can
increase from zero to the yield strength fy
In fig, let
maximum M at a and zero at support
fs at a is T = As fs

Development length concept total tension force must be transferred from the bar to the
concrete in the distance l by bond stress on the surface.
To fully develop the strength of bar T = Asfy the distance l must be equal to l d =
development length

Safety against bond failure: the length of the bar from any point of given steel stress
to its nearby end must be at least equal to its development length. If the length is
inadequate, special anchorage such as hooks must be provided.

Factors influencing Development Length

Tensile strength of concrete

Cover distance
Bar spacing
Lateral reinforcement
Vertical bar location relative to beam depth (bond strength reduced with
placement of bars higher from bottom)
Epoxy coated bars or not (bond strength reduced due to reduced friction of
epoxy coating)
Excess reinforcement
Bar diameter (smaller diameter bars need lower development length

Development Length

Bond stress avg acts on the bar to

maintain equilibrium

The development length thus can thus be expressed in terms of ultimate value of average bond
stress as

Development Length


a circular prism representing the zones of highest radial tensile stresses

Splitting is assumed to occur when the maximum stress in the concrete is equal to
the tensile strength of the concrete, fct.
Thus equilibrium shows

K is the ratio of the average tensile to the maximum tensile stress and equals 0.5 for
the triangular stress distribution
The avg bond stress avg equals p

Tensile Strength of Concrete

Development Length


ACI Code Provision for Development of Tension



(c + ktr)/db > 2.5 pullout failure

(c + ktr)/db < 1.5 splitting failure
are not to be greater than 100 psi.

Simplified Equations for Development Length

For two cases of practical importance, use (c + ktr) / db = 1.5

Simplified Equations for Development Length

(c + ktr) / db can only be taken as 1.5 following two cases are met

Further Simplification for Development Length

Further Simplification for Development Length


Hooked Anchorages



Development of standard hooks in tension

The confining reinforcement factor r

ldh must be
modified by

Requirements for Transverse Reinforcement

Transverse Steel Essential:
When hooks required at the ends of SS
Discontinuous end of beam with small
cover distance like ending at column
Bars anchored in a short cantilever

Anchorage of Tension Bars by Hooks

Anchorage of Tension Bars by Hooks

Development length dt for headed deformed bars

Provisions for headed bars


Mechanical Anchorage
In cases where headed bars do not
meet the requirements specified or
where bars are terminated by
mechanisms such as welded plates or
other manufactured devices, ACI C
allows such devices to be used to
develop the reinforcement if the
adequacy of the devices is established
by tests.

Development of hooked bars in tension. Referring to the beam-column joint shown,
No. 11 (No. 36) negative bars are to be extended into the column and terminated in a
standard 90 hook, keeping 2 in. clear to the outside face of the column. The column
width in the direction of beam width is 16 in. Find the minimum length of embedment of
the hook past the column face, and specify the hook details

Excess rft: Asreq/Asprovided=2.9/3.12=0.93

Problem 5.1

Development of Bars in Compression

Hooks as used for tension reinforcement are not effective in transferring

compression from bars to concrete and should be disregarded in determining
required embedment length.

ACI basic development length in compression is greater of

Modification in Compressive ldc

ldc is not to be less than 8

Basic and Modified

Compressive ldc as
per ACI 12.3

Bar cut offs and dev of bars in flexure members

For economy, some of the bars can be terminated or cut off where they are no longer
Bar cut offs should be kept to a minimum to simplify design and construction,
particularly in zones where the bars are stressed in tension.
Cut off in a region of moderately high shear force cause a major stress

Bar Cutoff and Bend Points in Beams

Theoretical points of cutoff or
T = As fs = M/jd
T = function of (M)
ACI Code: uniformly loaded,
continuous beam of fairly regular
span may be designed using moment
To determine cutoff points for
continuous beams, M diagram from
max span M and max support M are

Bar Cutoff and Bend Points in Beams



Moment (Mu)


Bar Cutoff and Bend Points in Continuous Beams



Moment (Mu)


Practical Considerations and ACI Code Requirements

If cutoff points are in tension zone (to prevent formation of premature

flexural and diagonal tension cracks) no flexural bar shall be terminated
unless the following conditions are specified.

Standard Cutoff and Bend Points

For not more than 50% of tensile steel is to be cutoff or bent

Special Requirements near the Point of Zero


It is necessary to consider whenever the moments over the development length are
greater than those corresponding to a linear reduction to zero.
Bond force per unit length , u = dT / dx = dM / zdx, proportional to the slope of the
moment diagram.
Maximum bond forces u would occur at point of inflection and pullout resistance is
Slope of M diagram at any point = V at that point
Let Mn = nominal flexural
strength provided by those
bars extend to the
point of inflection.

Structural Integrity

Structural Integrity Provisions

Lap Splices
Supplied Lengths
Bar # 5 - # 18 60 ft
Bar # 4 and below 20 to 40 ft

Splices at points of maximum stress should be avoided

When used splices should be staggered
For #11 and smaller bars simple lapping of bars is made to a sufficient distance
to transfer stress by bond
Lapped bars a placed in contact and lightly wire bound
Alternate way is welding and mechanical devices
ACI does not allow lapped splices for > #11 bars
Except that #14 and #18 bars may be spliced in compression with #11 and
smaller bars

Lap Splices in Tension

Stated in terms of development length - ld
For calculation of ld , the usual modification factors may be applied
but NOT the excess steel modification factor
Classification of lap splices in tension (based on minimum length of
lap required)
Class A lap splices 1.0 ld but not less than 12 in
Class B lap splices 1.3 ld but not less than 12 in

Lap Splices in Compression

Mainly used in columns
Bars in columns are generally terminated just above each floor
Due to construction convenience avoid handling long column bars
To permit column steel area to reduce in steps


As a design simplification, it is conservative to assume K tr= 0, even if

the transverse reinforcement is present. the term (c + K tr) / db in the
denominator of accounts for the effects of small cover, close bar
spacing and confinement provided by transverse reinforcement.

The ACI code gives simplified versions of eqn 5.4 for preselected
values of (c + Ktr) / db. However, the development length l d computed
by eqn 5.4 is mostly substantially shorter than development length
computed from simplified eqns.

Diameters and Areas of Standard Rebars

Anchorage Requirements for

Web Reinforcement

For assumed (conservatively) uniformed slope of moment diagram Vu

towards the positive moment region, length a at M = Mn
a = Mn/Vu

Thus a must be greater than or equal to ld

ACI Code

Simple support case