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Fiqh for Economist 1

ECON 3510

Lesson1: Introduction to
Shariah

Comprehensiveness of Islam:
Islam is a comprehensivereligion that describes the
way to fulfill the purpose behind our creation (worship
none but our Creator).
Islam is the last Divine religion and as such, must
rationally and practically be the most comprehensive and
complete religion. There is no religion as comprehensive
as Islam.
Islam has answers to all the various questions that
man encounters, directly or indirectly, from the first
moments of life, rather, from the moment of conception.
Islam deals with all social, economic, cultural and
ethical questions of life.

Belief in the comprehensiveness of Islam, its validity

for every time and place, and its fulfillment of every


worldly and religious requirement is a religious
obligation.
Anyone who believes otherwise, claiming that
Islam is not valid for every time and place, or that
there is a better way of life than it, is an apostate or
has no knowledge about Islam.
Such false beliefs indicate denial of the revealed
texts that assert the perfection of religion.
Such false beliefs also indicate that the person
degrades this religion and degrades the Messenger of
Allaah , who conveyed it. They definitely render the
person who follows this belief an apostate.

The meaning of Islam


What does `Islam mean?
The Arabic word Islam simply means
submission; it is derived from a word silm
means peace.
In a religious context Islam means
submission to the will of God and obedience
to his law
Man possesses the qualities of intelligence
and choice, thus he is invited to submit to
the good will of God and obey His law, ie,
become
a
Muslim.

Tawhid or Belief in Oneness of


Allah swt
Tawhid
(Oneness
of
Allah)
is
the
fundamental stone of Islamic faith (iman).
Tawhid means: declaring Allah to be the
only God who deserves to be worshiped in
truth and confirming all attributes with
which He has qualified Himself or that are
attributed to him by his messenger

The Meaning and Significance of Akhlaq

Islamic Ethics
in the Arabic language: the word Akhlaq is derived
from the word "Khuluq" meaning the character and
the nature.
The definition of morals in the Shari'ah
terminology:
The morals are the characteristics which Allah
(SWT) has ordered the Muslim to abide by when
performing his actions.
They are the commands and prohibitions related
to the qualities which the Muslim should
demonstrate when performing his actions.
morals are part of the Islamic legislation for they
are part of Allah's commands and prohibitions

Here

examples for some pleasant moral


qualities which Shar`ah has commanded:
- A Muslim must show qualities of the just and fair
)judge between people because Allah (SWT
says:

"And when you judge between people, do judge


with justice" [4:58].
A Muslim should show gentleness when carrying
the Da'awa and debating with people. Allah
(SWT) says:





"by the Mercy of Allah that you dealt gently with


them. Were you severe or harsh-hearted, they
would have broken away from about you, so pass
over (their faults), and ask (Allah) forgiveness for
them, and consult them in the affairs" [3:159].
Here examples for some despicable moral
qualities which Shar`ah has prohibited,such as
disobeying the parents. telling lies, envy,
injustice, hypocrisy, cheating, insulting, and etc.

If the Muslim did not adhere to the morals as


being commands from Allah (SWT) and as being acts
of worship for which he will be rewarded in the day of
Judgment, his morals would not be considered as acts
of worship and they would not be accepted of him
even if they were not for the sake of ALLAH

For instance someone told the truth because

telling the truth is regarded in society as a good


deed, his action would not be considered an act
of worship, but if he did so in response to the
command of Allah (SWT) and His Messenger
(SAW) who said: "Verily a man would tell the
truth and keep on doing so until Allah labels him
as truthful" , only then would his truthfulness
would be an act of worship.

The Necessity of Akhlaq in Economic


Activities
The observance of Akhlaq is also essential to
a healthy economy.
Lack of moral values may lead to corruption,
mismanagement, bribery, breach of trust, misuse
of authority, and obtaining illegal gains which are
not only immoral but also crimes.
The Prophet p.b.u.h. is reported to have said: All
the evils can be found in a Mumin, except
dishonesty and falsehood.

If there is no mutual trust among the people

they will not be able to trust and cooperate


with each other.
Making false promises or breach of promise
are types of lies and amount to hypocrisy.
They also damage a persons reputation who
will lose peoples confidence and trust.
In trade, business, and other financial and
economic
matters
an
atmosphere
of
confidence can be created only when the
fulfilment of promises is considered a duty.

Al-Imam Al-Bukhari reported that the Messenger of

Allah (SAW) said: "Verily those I love most and those


who will be closest to me are those of you who have
the best morals.
. A Muslim businessman and trader should not
indulge in fraud, misrepresentation and unlawful
profiteering.
The Prophet p.b.u.h. has stated: It is not lawful for a
Muslim to sell such a commodity that has a defect,
except that the defect is shown to the buyer.
A Muslim employer should treat his employees with
fairness and justice and a Muslim employee should
serve with honesty and dedication.

The Meaning of Shariah


The word Shari`ah literally means a water

way that leads to a main stream, a drinking


place.
Technically Means: The divine revelation
and knowledge which is only obtained from
the Quran and Sunnah.
Shari`ah, conceptually, refers to: a set of
rules, regulations, teachings, and values
governing the lives of Muslims. individual
attitude and conduct, as well as the political,
social, economic, criminal, and civil spheres.

The Shari`ah, therefore, is a path set by

Allah for those who accept Him to follow, in


order to attain success both in the worldly life
and in the hereafter.
Shariah is composed of all the laws derived

from the legislative sources of Islam. These


laws are not just limited to areas covering
marriage or divorce; rather, the Islamic laws
cover every action performed by an individual
or a society.
The scope of the Shari`ah: it comprises

beliefs (`aqidah), rituals (`ibaddat ), civil and


social transactions (mu`malat), and ethics