About cake filtration

© All Rights Reserved

26 views

About cake filtration

© All Rights Reserved

- Reverse Osmosis/Ultrafiltration Unit Datasheet
- REVERSE OSMOSIS
- Best-practises RO Plant
- Design of Advanced Reverse Osmosis and Nano Filtration
- Watts Premier INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL WP5
- Bajaj Processpack Limited Juice Packaging Machines & Juice Packaging Equipments
- 0901b803808db77d.pdf
- waste water costing.xls
- tmp4CAE.tmp
- WOG List of Installation_Jan_2015
- Removal Heavy Metal
- RO II.pdf
- Review on Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater
- Patent e
- Difference Between RO and Uf
- Clean Water Team comments on Leland's Regional Compromise Plan
- 1546240688767_1546240688508_ALA List 2016
- Dust Filtration
- ZW1500-x Module FS
- 4.pdf

You are on page 1of 101

There are three major types of membrane-based filtration

techniques:

(1) microfiltration,

(2) ultrafiltration, and

(3) reverse osmosis

They are classed according to the particle size they

commonly remove from solutions.

microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis.

Microfiltration

Retain particles as small as 0.1 m.

- They retain even the smallest bacteria.

- They will not retain dissolved proteins.

Used extensively in bioprocesses as sterile filter for both

liquid and gas streams.

They are used to filter-sterilize heat-sensitive media.

Ultrafiltration

Being able to retain dissolved proteins with molecular

weights as low as a few thousand.

Rated in terms of their molecular-weight cutoff.

Widely used in the separation of biological products.

Reverse Osmosis

Retain not only proteins but also dissolved ionic salts and

small organic molecules with MW in the hundreds.

Used most extensively in the purification of water and the

concentration of biological and food processing streams.

Diafiltration

Repeated or continuous addition of fresh solvent

(usually water) in an ultrafiltration system.

To wash out any contaminants not retained by

the

membrane.

system:

A+B

B

A

water

Electrodialysis

Employ semi-permeable ion-exchange membranes that

are impervious to water.

The separation is electrically driven instead of pressuredriven.

Cross-Flow Filtration

Most of the pressure drop in conventional filtration

comes from the cake.

* Concentration

polarization:

accumulation of

solute near the

membrane surface

Cross-Flow Filtration

Use filtration where cross flow is dominant.

ULTRAFILTRATION

Ultrafiltration is a membrane process; it involves solvent

transport under pressure.

ULTRAFILTRATION (2/6)

membrane, there is no absolute cutoff point.

_____________

ULTRAFILTRATION (3/6)

characteristics:

(1)

Reduce cake formation or concentration

polarization.

(2)

filter medium usually has little effect on flow

through the cake.

(3)

membrane

geometry in actual equipment.

ULTRAFILTRATION (4/6)

ULTRAFILTRATION (5/6)

______________________________________________________

prefiltered.

ULTRAFILTRATION (6/6)

increases.

Re-dilution once or twice may be useful before

finally collecting the retentate.

ANALYSIS OF ULTRAFILTRATION

the chief force is the transmembrane pressure (P).

Solvent velocity force on solvent

Darcy's

law:

k

P

v

Darcy's

law:

where

k

P

v

jv

P

L p P

( Rm R p )

= viscosity of the permeate

jv = the volume of solvent per area per time (or

the solvent velocity)

Rm = membrane resistance

Rp = resistance of the polarized boundary layer

Lp = the permeability

jv L p P

jv LP ( P )

jv LP ( P )

where = the osmotic pressure

= a reflection coefficient

*=1

The membrane rejects all solutes.

*=0

and solute.

equation (1885)

= c1RT

where c1 = molar concentration of solute (mol/L)

R = gas law constant (0.082 L atm mol1 K1)

T = absolute temperature

The vant Hoff equation should only be used at low

molar concentrations.

At higher concentrations, the vant Hoff equation

significantly underpredicts the osmotic pressure.

__________

____________

types of biotechnology products, particularly

macromolecules.

Their maximum concentrations are often much less

than 1 molar.

equation for a binary system consisting of water and a

solute.

RT

Gibbs equation :

ln x 2

V2

where V2 is the molar volume of water, and x2 is the mole

fraction of water.

When x2 >> x1

n1

n1

ln x 2 ln(1 x1 ) x1

n1 n 2

n2

RT

V2

n1

c1 RT

n2

containing 0.1 vol% yeast suspension gives a flux of 36

gal/ft2-day under a pressure difference of 130 psi. (a) What

is the value of Lp? (b) What is the water velocity through the

membrane?

Solution:

(a) The yeast cells have a very high molecular weight, so

that their molar concentration and the resulting osmotic

pressure will be small.

jv LP ( P ) L p P

gal

36 2

L p (130 psi) Lp = 0.28 gal/ft2-day-psi

ft - day

(To be continued)

% yeast suspension gives a flux of 36 gal/ft2-day under a pressure

difference of 130 psi. (a) What is the value of Lp? (b) What is the water

velocity through the membrane?

Solution (contd):

(b) The water velocity through the membrane = jv

gal 3785 cm 3

ft 2

day

36 2

ft - day

gal (30.48 cm) 2 24 3600 s

= 0.0017 cm/s

#

d = 8 m

= 1.05 g/cm3

d 3

V

= 2.7 1010 cm3

6

MW = (6.02 1023)(2.7 1010)(1.05)

= 1.7 1014

Material balance:

Rate of solute accumulation

= (rate of solute flow in)

(rate of solute diffuse out)

dc

0 cj v D

dx

B.C. 1: x = 0, c = c10

B.C. 2: x = , c = c1

D c10

j v ln c

1

chymotrypsin in a spiral wound module at a rate of 1.3 105

cm/s. The solution concentration is 0.44 wt%, the proteins

diffusion coefficient is 9.5 107 cm2/s, and the boundary

layer is about 0.018 cm thick. How high is the surface

concentration?

Solution:

D c10

j v ln

c1

1.3 10

9.5 10 7 c10

ln

0.018

c1

c10

1. 3

c1

#

Assumptions:

(1) There is little concentration polarization. c10 = c1

concentration polarization can be neglected.

(2) The membrane rejects all the solute. = 1

c1 RT

dV

Ajv AL p ( P ) AL p P 1

dt

P

n1 RT / P

dV

AL p P 1

dt

V

n1 RT / P

dV

AL p P 1

dt

V

I. C.: t = 0, V = V0

1

n1 RT V0 n1 RT / P

t

ln

(V0 V )

AL p P

P V n1 RT / P

containing 0.061 wt% of a protein used as a vaccine for

herpes. This protein has a diffusion coefficient of 1.1 106

cm2/s and a molecular weight of 16,900. We would like to

get the concentration up to about 2% by weight. The

ultrafilter, which we hope to use, has eight hollow fiber

cartridges, each of which has a surface area of 1.20 m2. It

is cooled to 4C during the operation. The membrane in

these cartridges gives an initial flux of 5.7 105 cm/s

under a pressure drop of 31 atm. Assuming negligible

concentration polarization, estimate the time to complete

this filtration.

Solution:

1

n1 RT V0 n1 RT / P

t

ln

(V0 V )

AL p P

P V n1 RT / P

(To be continued)

protein used as a vaccine for herpes. This protein has a diffusion coefficient of 1.1

10-6 cm2/s and a molecular weight of 16,900. We would like to get the

concentration up to about 2% by weight. The ultrafilter, which we hope to use,

has eight hollow fiber cartridges, each of which has a surface area of 1.20 m2. It is

cooled to 4C during the operation. The membrane in these cartridges gives an

initial flux of 5.7 10-5 cm/s under a pressure drop of 31 atm. Assuming negligible

concentration polarization, estimate the time to complete this filtration.

Solution (contd):

1

n1 RT V0 n1 RT / P

t

ln

(V0 V )

AL p P

P V n1 RT / P

V0 = 840 L ;

0.061 %

V 840 L

25.62 L

2%

0.061% (840 10 3 ) g

n1

0.03 mol

16900 g/mol

0.02 L

P

31 atm

(To be continued)

protein used as a vaccine for herpes. This protein has a diffusion coefficient of 1.1

10-6 cm2/s and a molecular weight of 16,900. We would like to get the

concentration up to about 2% by weight. The ultrafilter, which we hope to use,

has eight hollow fiber cartridges, each of which has a surface area of 1.20 m2. It is

cooled to 4C during the operation. The membrane in these cartridges gives an

initial flux of 5.7 10-5 cm/s under a pressure drop of 31 atm. Assuming negligible

concentration polarization, estimate the time to complete this filtration.

Solution (contd):

Initial

flux:

c10 RT

1

n1 RT V0 n1 RT / P

(

V

V

)

ln

0

AL p P

P

V

n

RT

/

jv LP ( P )

0.03 mol

L - atm

0

.

082

(

277

K ) = 8.11 104 atm

840 L

mol- K

Lp = 1.84 10-6

cm

s - atm

(To be continued)

The ultrafilter, which we hope to use, has eight hollow fiber cartridges, each of

which has a surface area of 1.20 m2.

Assuming negligible concentration polarization, estimate the time to complete

this filtration.

Solution (contd):

ALpP = (8 1.2 104)(1.84 106)(31) = 5.48 cm3/s = 5.48 103 L/s

1

n1RT V0 n1RT / P

t

ln

(V0 V )

ALp P

P V n1RT / P

5.48 10 3

840 0.02

(840 25.62) 0.02 ln 25.62 0.02

840 0.02

0.07

25.62 0.02

Note : 0.02 ln

CONCENTRATION POLARIZATION IN

ULTRAFILTRATION

Material balance for solute in

the boundary layer:

(Flux of solute in due to

convection)

= (flux of solute out due to

diffusion)

dc

jv c D

dx

c1

jv

dc

c c D 0 dx

10

c10

jv jv

ln

c1

D kc

ln

c10

j j

v v

c1

D kc

N Sh 0.0096 N Re

0.913

N Sc

0.346

or

N Sh 0.082 N Re

0.69

N Sc

0.33

kc d

NSh (Sherwood number) = D (d: pipe diameter)

vd

NRe (Reynolds number) =

wetted perimeter

c10

* Concentration polarization becomes severe when c 10.

1

equation (for particles or large spherical molecules, VA >

500 cm3/mol)

7.32 10 16 T

D

r0

T = absolute temperature, K

r0 = radius of the particles, cm

= viscosity of solution, cP

VA = molar volume of solute as liquid at its normal

boiling point, cm3/g mol

protein solution at constant volume to remove low molecular

weight species (achieved by the addition of water or buffer to

the feed in an operation called diafiltration). The flow

channels for this system are tubes 0.1 cm in diameter and 100

cm long. The protein has a diffusion coefficient of 9 107

cm2/s. The solution has a viscosity of 1.2 cp and a density of

1.1 g/cm3. The system is capable of operating at bulk stream

velocity of 300 cm/s. At this velocity, determine the

polarization modulus (c10/c1) for a transmembrane flux of 45 L

m2 h1.

c

j

kc d

Solution: ln 10 v N Sh 0.082 N Re 0.69 N Sc 0.33

N

Sh D

c1 k c

N Re

g

cm

1.1 3 300

0.1 cm

vd

cm

s

2750

g

1.2 10 - 2

(To be continued)

cm - s

Solution (contd):

N Sh 0.082 N Re

N Sc

N Sc

0.33

; N Re 2750

g

4

cm - s

1

.

21

10

2

cm

9 10 7

s

1.2 10 2

1.1

N Sh

0.69

cm 3

kcd

D

N Sh

kc d

D

cm 2

9 10

D

s 3.88 10 3 cm

k c N Sh 431

d

0.1 cm

s

7

(To be continued)

Solution (contd):

kc 3.88 103

cm

s

c10 jv

ln

c1 k c

jv

c10

exp

c1

kc

L 1000 cm 3

m2

h

4

45 2

2

m -h

L

10 cm 3600 s

exp

1.38

cm

-3

3.88

10

a water permeability of 250 L/m2-h-atm is used for

ultrafiltration of cheese whey. The solution velocity is 1.5 m/s

and the protein concentration is 10 g/L. The whey proteins

have an average diffusivity of 4 107 cm2/s, and the osmotic

pressure in atm is given by Jonssons equation:

= 4.4 103c 1.7 106c2 + 7.9 108c3

where c is the protein concentration in g/L. Calculate the

applied pressure if the permeate flux is 103 cm/s. Assume the

protein rejection is 100 percent and the bulk solution has the

same density and viscosity as water.

Solution:

jv LP ( P ) Need c to estimate .

10

c10

jv

ln

Need kc.

c1 k c

(To be continued)

4 10-7 cm2/s; = 4.4 10-3c10 1.7 10-6c102 + 7.9 10-8c103 ;

= 1 g/cm3; = 1 cp; jv = 10-3 cm/s; P = ?

Solution (contd):

N Re

30,000

0.01 g/cm - s

0.01 g/cm - s

N Sc

25,000

3

7

2

D (1 g/cm )( 4 10 cm / s)

N Sh

kc d

D

N Sh D (3.9 103 )( 4 10 7 )

kc

7.8 10 4 cm/s

d

2

(To be continued)

4 10-7 cm2/s; = 4.4 10-3c10 1.7 10-6c102 + 7.9 10-8c103 ;

= 1 g/cm3; = 1 cp; jv = 10-3 cm/s; P = ?

Solution (contd):

c10

jv

ln

c1 k c

c10

10 3

ln

10 7.8 10 4

1000 cm 3

L

Permeability, Lp 250 2

m - h - atm

L

m2

10000 cm 2

h

3600 s

Permeate flux, jv LP ( P )

0.001 = 6.94 103 (P 0.16) P = 0.304 atm

CONCENTRATION POLARIZATION IN

ULTRAFILTRATION WITH PARTIAL

REJECTION OF SOLUTES

dc

jv c D

jv c2

dx

B.C.1: c = c10 at x = 0

B.C.2: c = c1 at x =

The solution is:

c10 c 2

jv jv

ln

c1 c 2

D kc

Recall:

D c10

dc

cjv D

0 j v ln

c1

dx

c10 c 2

jv jv

ln

c1 c 2

D kc

jv

kc

jv

kc

c2

c2

jv

j

c10 c1

1 exp c1 1 R Rexp v

c1

kc

kc

c1

c2

where R 1 , the fraction rejected

c1

jv

c10 c1 1 R Rexp

kc

c2

R 1

c1

with c10, i.e., c2 = Kc10.

c10

j

c

j

1

2 1 R Rexp v

(1 R ) 1 R Rexp v

c1 Kc1

kc

K

kc

j

1

R

1

exp v

K

1 R

kc

j

1

1 K

R

1

exp v

K

K

1 R

kc

1 R K exp jv

R

1 K

kc

1 R

K

j

exp v

R

1 K

kc

c2 = Kc10

K is a constant, and

R varies with jv.

(1)

The rejection, R, approaches (1 K) as the

permeate flux, jv, approaches zero.

(2)

The rejection decreases with increasing the

permeate flux.

membrane at NRe = 25,000 gave a permeate flux of 40 L m2 h1

and 75 percent rejection for a 5 percent polymer solution. The

polymer has an estimated diffusivity of 5 107 cm2/s. The bulk

solution has the same density and viscosity as water. Predict

the fraction rejected for a flux of 20 L m2 h1. What is the

maximum rejection?

Solution:

j

1 R

K

exp v

R

1 K

kc

0.01 g/cm - s

N Sc

20,000

3

7

2

D (1 g/cm )(5 10 cm /s)

kc d

N Sh

= 0.0096NRe0.913NSc0.346 = 3060

D

N Sh D (3060)(5 10 7 )

3

k

1

.

02

10

cm/s

c

d

1.5

(To be continued)

cm2/s. Predict the fraction rejected for a flux of 20 L m 2 h1. What is the

maximum rejection?

Solution (contd):

j

1 R

K

exp v ;

R

1 K

kc

kc 1.02 10 3 cm/s

j

1 R

K

exp v

R

1 K

kc

1 0.75

K

1.11 10 3

exp

0.75

1 K

1.02 10 3

K = 0.101

(To be continued)

cm2/s. Predict the fraction rejected for a flux of 20 L m 2 h1. What is the

maximum rejection?

Solution (contd):

j

1 R

K

exp v

R

1 K

kc

3

; kc 1.02 10 cm/s ; K = 0.101

1 R

0.101

0.556 10 3

exp

R

1 0.101

1.02 10 3

R = 0.84

Rmax = 1 K = 0.899

Ultrafiltration

Concentration polarization increases the osmotic

pressure, hampers the permeate flux, and adds to the

severity of membrane fouling.

Air sparging (injecting air into the feed stream) has been

the most popular technique proposed for the reduction of

concentration polarization.

The injected air induces hydrodynamic disturbances

in the filtration module, which destabilizes the

concentration layer over the membrane surface.

generate two-phase flow.

magnitude higher than air (3.032 103 Pa s at

25C compared to 1.86 105 Pa s at 27C).

When the oil droplets rub the surface of the

membrane, the shear force and hence the

disturbances generated by n-hexadecane

droplets could be much more effective than that

by air bubbles.

0.04

0.02

0.00

0

30

60

90

Time (min)

n-hexadecane/water ultrafiltrations of a lipase solution. Symbols:

() conventional, () air/water, and () n-hexadecane/water.

DIAFILTRATION

Batch concentration versus diafiltration

Batch concentration:

DIAFILTRATION (2/4)

Diafiltration:

a rate equal to removal of ultrafiltrate.

DIAFILTRATION (3/4)

the membrane,

d (CV0 ) CdV

Cf

dC

1

C C V0

0

Vw

dV

0

ln

C 0 Vw

C f V0

where

V0 = volume of initial preparation added to the cell (being

constant)

C0 = initial microsolute concentration in the reservoir

Cf = microsolute concentration after volume Vw of wash

solution has passed through the cell

DIAFILTRATION (4/4)

C

V

d (CV0 ) CdV ln 0 w

C f V0

to the membrane,

ln

C0

V

(1 R ) w

Cf

V0

Note:

*R=0

membrane.

* R = 1 Rejected solute.

to desalt 1000 L of a protein solution containing NaCl. The

system has a membrane area of 100 m2 and is capable of

operating at a transmembrane flux of 30 L m2 h1. To

remove 99.99% of the salt, determine the time and the

volume of water required.

Solution:

ln

C 0 Vw

C f V0

Vw

1

ln

0.0001 1000

Vw = Jv A t

t = 3.07 h

Vw = 9210 L

L

9210 L 30 2 100 m 2 t

m h

REVERSE OSMOSIS

Adding a soluble salt to water.

Reducing the chemical potential of the water.

Osmotic flow.

= 1.12(T + 273)mi

= osmotic pressure, psi

T = temperature, C

mi = summation of molalities (mol/1000 g of

water) of all ionic and nonionic constituents in the

solution

* = 15 psi, for a typical brackish water; = 350 psi,

for seawater.

400600 psig for brackish water

8001,000 psig for seawater

Reverse osmosis is used most extensively in the

purification of water and the concentration of biological

and food processing streams.

A simple schematic of an RO system:

membrane is defined by:

Qw = kwA(P )/

Qw = water flow rate through the membrane

kw = membrane permeability coefficient for water

A = membrane area

P = hydraulic pressure differential across the membrane

= membrane thickness

Qs = ksAc/

Qs = flow rate of salt through the membrane

c = salt concentration differential across the membrane

ks = membrane permeability coefficient for salt

Qw = kwA(P )/ ; Qs = ksAc/

membrane is proportional to the pressure

differential across the membrane.

concentration differential, and is independent of the

applied pressure.

increase the water flow without changing the salt

flow.

Y = 100Qp/Qf

Y = % recovery

Qp = product water flow rate

Qf = feed water flow rate

Salt passage is defined by:

SP = 100cp/cf

SP = % salt passage

cp = salt concentration in the product stream

cf = salt concentration in the feed stream

the skin.

The flow rate through a membrane is inversely

proportional to the membrane thickness.

These membranes provide high water transport

while still maintaining the important ability to

reject salts.

Sourirajan at UCLA in the early 1960s) have two major

limitations.

(1) They are susceptible to degradation from biological

attack.

Using chlorinated feed water to prevent such

attack.

(2) They hydrolyze back to cellulose under acidic and

particularly basic conditions.

Control the pH of the system at 4.5 to 7.5.

porous tube designed to withstand the operating pressure.

* This device is

like a huge

envelope made

of membrane

and containing

a feed spacer.

across the membrane and is collected inside the envelope.

The envelope is wound spirally about a plastic tube that

receives the permeate.

________

Aramid

membranes:

commercialized by

Du Pont in 1970,

made from an

aromatic polyamide

polymer, operated

at pH range of 411,

not susceptible to

biological attack

and resist

hydrolysis. (But,

they are degraded

by chlorine.)

____________

* Pressurized water passes through the fiber wall into the

fiber bore. The salts and other impurities remain in the

brine, which flows to the outer perimeter of the fiber bundle.

RO system design:

___

Remarks:

* Cartridge filter: remove large-particle matter that could

damage the high-pressure pump or cause device plugging.

______

______

inadequate flow rate.

* Valve on the pump discharge: control the pressure of the feed

water.

* Temperature switch: protect the permeator.

______

____

prevent the permeator from over-pressurization.

* Flow-control valve on the brine: set conversion.

CONCENTRATION POLARIZATION IN

REVERSE OSMOSIS

effects:

(1) The increase in c10 increases .

Qw = kwA(P )/

pressure to produce a given water flux across the

membrane.

(2) The increase in c10 serves to increase the driving

force for salt transport through the membrane.

Qs = ksAc/

membrane surface, c10, exceeds the solubility limit, it

forms a thixotropic gel.

It is referred to the phenomenon as fouling of the

membrane.

desalination of seawater. The volumetric flux of water

through the membrane is 3 105 m/s (or m3 s1 m2), and

the applied feed pressure is 8.0 MPa greater than the

product-water pressure. For seawater, the osmotic pressure

is 2.5 MPa. What is the water velocity through the

membrane if the polarization modulus (c10/c1) rises to 1.2fold of the original?

Solution:

Osmotic pressure of seawater, = 1.12(T + 273)mi

2 (mi ) 2

1 (mi )1

(To be continued)

Flux of water = 3 10-5 m/s (or m3 s-1 m-2); P = 8.0 MPa; = 2.5 MPa.

What is the water velocity through the membrane if the polarization

modulus (c10/c1) rises to 1.2-fold of the original?

Solution (contd):

2 = 3.0 MPa

Qw = kwA(P )/ or Qw/A = jv = Lp(P )

jv 2 ( P ) 2 8.0 3.0

0.91

jv1 ( P )1 8.0 2.5

#

polarization in turbulent flow:

c10

jv d h0.2 ( / ) 0.47

exp

c1

0.023v 0.8 D 0.67

where jv = the volume of solvent per area per time

dh = equivalent hydraulic diameter

= viscosity of fluid

= density of fluid

v = average velocity of fluid

D = local solute diffusivity in solution

out using turbulent flow through a tubular 1.0-cm-diameter

membrane with a system temperature of 18.5C. Which of

the following factors would be effective in reducing the

degree of concentration polarization if the water flux is held

constant? (a) Reduced temperature; (b) reduced tube

diameter with the same mass flow rate of seawater; and (c)

recirculation of the seawater with the same size and length.

Solution:

c10

jv d h0.2 ( / ) 0.47

exp

c1

0.023v 0.8 D 0.67

diffusivity.

Lower temperature makes concentration

polarization more severe.

(To be continued)

reducing the degree of concentration polarization if the water flux is

held constant? (b) Reduced tube diameter with the same mass flow

rate of seawater; and (c) recirculation of the seawater with the same

size and length.

Solution:

c10

jv d h0.2 ( / ) 0.47

exp

c1

0.023v 0.8 D 0.67

(b) Reducing tube diameter with the same mass flow rate of

water will raise v.

Concentration polarization will be reduced.

(c) Recirculation of the seawater will increase v.

It alleviates concentration polarization but does so at

the expense of much more pumping power (more flow

and more pressure drop).

_____________

(2/2)

Remarks

* Some flavor components

that have a molecular

weight or size similar to

ethanol also pass through

the membrane.

Some flavor losses occur.

* The membrane cost is high.

The annual replacement

cost is up to 7% of the

original capital cost.

DIALYSIS

the same inside and outside the membrane.

DIALYSIS (2/3)

the required final composition.

_____________________________

___________

DIALYSIS (3/3)

the bag).

To increase the rate of movement.

REVERSE DIALYSIS

The filled bag is packed in a dry, water-soluble

polymer which cannot enter the membrane.

Water and salts are continuously removed until

the sample is totally dry.

Most macromolecules become irreversibly

bound to the dialysis tubing. (They are lost.)

Semipermeable glass fibers: hollow-bore fibers whose

glass walls contain pores of controlled size

ANALYSIS OF DIALYZER

A shell-and-tube type of hollow-fiber dialyzer:

The rate of salt removed

Q F (C F 1 C F 2 ) Q D (C D 2 C D1 ) KAClm

( C F 1 C D 2 ) ( C F 2 C D1 )

Clm

ln[(C F 1 C D 2 ) /(C F 2 C D1 )]

is to be dialysed in a shell-and-tube type of hollow-fiber

dialyzer operating countercurrently. With a dialyzer having

1000 cm2 area of membranes the dialysis coefficient for NaCl

was determined to be 0.0415 cm/min, when the feed rate was

200 cm3/min, and the flow rate of pure water was 500

cm3/min. If 90% of the salt is to be removed, what area of the

hollow-fiber membranes will be needed, if the same flow rates

for feed and water are used?

Solution:

QF (CF 1 CF 2 ) KAClm

200(100 0.1 100) 500(C D 2 0)

CD 2 36 g/L

(To be continued)

CF1 = 100 g/L; K = 0.0415 cm/min; QF = 200 cm3/min; QD = 500

cm3/min. If 90% of the salt is to be removed, what area of the hollowfiber membranes will be needed?

Solution (contd):

CD 2 36 g/L

( C F 1 C D 2 ) ( C F 2 C D1 )

Clm

ln[(C F 1 C D 2 ) /(C F 2 C D1 )]

(100 36) (10 0)

29.1 g/L

ln[(100 36) /(10 0)]

QF (CF 1 CF 2 ) KAClm

Q F (C F 1 C F 2 ) 200(100 10)

14,905 cm 2

KClm

(0.0415)( 29.1)

- Reverse Osmosis/Ultrafiltration Unit DatasheetUploaded byArmfield Ltd
- REVERSE OSMOSISUploaded byEr Bali Pandhare
- Best-practises RO PlantUploaded byjdadha
- Design of Advanced Reverse Osmosis and Nano FiltrationUploaded byDr-Manoj Garg
- Watts Premier INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL WP5Uploaded byjaln29
- Bajaj Processpack Limited Juice Packaging Machines & Juice Packaging EquipmentsUploaded byBajaj Process Pack
- 0901b803808db77d.pdfUploaded byMartin Darmasetiawan
- waste water costing.xlsUploaded byavmurugan87
- tmp4CAE.tmpUploaded byFrontiers
- WOG List of Installation_Jan_2015Uploaded byIrfan Fahmi
- Removal Heavy MetalUploaded byMihaela Sarateanu Biltac
- RO II.pdfUploaded byNaveenraj Dada
- Review on Treatment of Pharmaceutical WastewaterUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Patent eUploaded byLSara Martín G
- Difference Between RO and UfUploaded byRao Visweswara Mohan
- Clean Water Team comments on Leland's Regional Compromise PlanUploaded byJohanna Ferebee
- 1546240688767_1546240688508_ALA List 2016Uploaded byPatel parth
- Dust FiltrationUploaded byNael
- ZW1500-x Module FSUploaded byDewesh Singh
- 4.pdfUploaded byAhoud Alhaimli
- Literature Review CHEN 499 - Wehbi & ArdatiUploaded bynatalia wehbi
- Guide to Equilibrium DialysisUploaded bymadrem
- 107Uploaded byKanthan Devan
- Membrane ChemicalUploaded byOssian89
- Paper 18Uploaded byARELENI
- bio lab reportUploaded byapi-344526023
- AssignUploaded byErick Rafael Anca
- 1-s2.0-S0360544209002096-mainUploaded byvictoria
- Sub Critical Fouling in a Membrane Bio Reactor for Municipal Waste Water Treatment Experimental Investigation and Mathematical ModellingUploaded byGui MC
- Liquid Membranes.docxUploaded bypotencialquimico

- Trends That Will Shape the Consumer Goods IndustryUploaded byMega Ranty
- ISB prevUploaded byAyush Garg
- Nsdjviujwn DweUploaded byAyush Garg
- EYQ_Participation Brochure 2017Uploaded byAyush Garg
- Operations+Case-+Case+BreakerUploaded byRahul
- Polaroid caseUploaded byAyush Garg
- prod_4Uploaded byAyush Garg
- e604-lect9Uploaded byAyush Garg
- Panacea QuizUploaded byAyush Garg
- Zone B-Case Study SubmissionUploaded byAyush Garg
- LIME 9 Rule Book for B-Schools 2017.pdfUploaded byAkhil Garg
- Submission Template L.I.M.E. 8.1Uploaded byKunal Kalkundri
- IOCL,_R&D_ppt_1Uploaded byAyush Garg
- 4931.pdfUploaded byAyush Garg
- ansys140Uploaded byvijay
- ConsoleArcade_NA_0707Uploaded bydivoeterno
- Emba Sample Letters of RecommendationUploaded byAyush Garg
- Hemodialysis ModellingUploaded byAyush Garg
- Hostel2 TenderUploaded byAyush Garg
- chp exp acetone20150827211416085Uploaded byAyush Garg
- HUL311 Course PlanUploaded byAyush Garg
- Order of PresentationUploaded byAyush Garg
- Finding Eigenvalues and EigenvectorsUploaded byAyush Garg
- MAY GKUploaded byAyush Garg
- Gk Power Capsule April 2014Uploaded bypiwal
- CHL112 MajorUploaded byAyush Garg
- CHL-112(08) majorUploaded byAyush Garg
- Petroleum refinery powerpoint slideUploaded byBharat Bajaj

- ATM D5773Uploaded byEnnio Palumbo
- 02 Coalescing FiltersUploaded byAlfredo Mendez Vazquez
- Modified Elutrate TestUploaded byMaria Regina
- Industrial Cleaning - Source Book.pdfUploaded byJhony Lopes
- Mirah Gold Project Operating Manual KBKUploaded byDaud Bramastasurya
- Siemens Se 54a631 Tech Doc LavaplatopsUploaded byg5857p
- Cleaning ValidationUploaded bySurendar Kesavan
- Mtf ManualUploaded bydms4633
- Centrifugal Filtr RealUploaded bymiguel_marsh
- Suggestion VAG Nozzles Rev1Uploaded bySubodh Subodh
- Epa_1_manual for Sludge Treatment and Disposal_lodos_1974Uploaded bywilly
- 00092002Uploaded bymsmsoft90
- en-10204Uploaded byNatasha Martin
- System Process UkUploaded byGilberto Yoshida
- Air Filtration ParkerUploaded bypanosh12
- 109.05 SEO DisinfAection Uv Sterilizer & FlowmeterUploaded byibrahim
- Emailing oil-well-cement-additives-a-review-of-the-common-types-ogr-1000112.pdfUploaded byMary Krinzy Charm Bañadera
- Presentation IIR COMB FinalUploaded bychandra bhushan kumar
- IOCCC 14 8a.1972 Fat in Chocolate and Cocoa ProductsUploaded byDiana Andrea Cardona Peña
- Validación 3Uploaded byNora Ruiz
- Solutions for wind Turbine Gearbox Reliability.pdfUploaded byamirq4
- Camfil HepaUploaded byAbhishek Jadhav
- Extraction of Iron (III) With Tributylphosphine Oxide From Hydrochloric & Sulphuric Acid SolutionsUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- gost 25584-90Uploaded bygabrolion
- NanoCeram Primer BasicsUploaded byEnzo Pracucci
- How to Design and Install a Wheel WashUploaded byYusma Nur
- Sterilisation by YUPPIERAJUploaded byyuppie_raj2175
- b 84567 Sb Mm2 Dsr St 60 0020_1_aoc_gtg Fuel Gas Filter CoalescerUploaded bypragatheesk
- All About FormulaeUploaded byCristian Bujor
- PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION, TOXICITY, ANTIOXIDANT AND LACTOGENIC ACTIVITIES OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA (L.).Uploaded byIJAR Journal