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ATOMS (1)
Smallest particle of matter
Non divisible by chemical
means
Composed of proton (+) and
neutron (neutral) in the
nucleus and electron (-)
outside the nucleus
the smallest unit of an
element to enter into
chemical reaction
All atoms have a particular
number of protons (atomic
number) (3)
atomic weights (4)depends
on the number of protons
and neutrons in the nucleus
chemical properties depend
on the number of electrons in
the outer shell

MOLECULES (2)
form when 2 or
more atoms of the
same element
react with one
another or
combine with
atoms of another
element
the smallest part
of a compound
could be organic
or inorganic

CHEMICAL BONDING (5)


interactions involving atoms of
elements combining with one
another
the attractive force that binds
atom together to form molecules
determined by the electrons that
surrounds the nucleus
an atom may bond with another
atom by either gaining, losing or
sharing of electrons

TYPES OF CHEMICAL BONDING

1. Ionic Bonding (6)


. an electron is transferred from atom
to another
. ions are formed
. cations when electron is lost (+) (7)
. anions when electron is gained (-) (8)
. occurs between metal and non-metal
elements

2. Covalent Bond (9)


electrons are shared
characteristics of most chemicals
in living things

3. Hydrogen Bond (10)


when hydrogen combines with
oxygen
weak and can be easily formed or
broken
very important in biological system
important in determining the
structure of DNA and proteins

INORGANIC MOLECULES
usually contain positive and negative ion
atoms are usually held together by ionic
bond
usually composed of short chains
often associated with non-living things
(11)
includes water, acids and bases, salts
and gases

1. WATER (12)
the most abundant component of
the protoplasm
inorganic compound composed of
two atoms of hydrogen and an
atom of oxygen

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER


universal solvent
high specific heat and latent heat of
vaporization
high degree of thermal conductivity
immiscible with lipids
neutral ph (13)
liquid in form at room temperature
high surface tension

PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER


dissolves or holds in suspension the materials of
the protoplasm
furnishes the medium for some vital processes
and substances ( nutrients, wastes and hormone)
moistens surfaces for gas diffusion
regulates body temperature
helps in the functions of the sense organs
serves as lubricant for movable substances
serves as cushion for the brain and spinal cord

2. ACIDS AND BASES


acids are molecules that raise the hydrogen ion
concentration (H+) (14)when added to a solution, such as HCl.

bases are molecules that lower the (H + ) when added to a

solution, such as NaOH

pH scale is used to
measure the acidity and
alkalinity of a solution
as the pH number
decreases, the acidity
increases
as the pH number
increases, the acidity
decreases
most organisms
maintain a neutral pH
(Ph 7)
a much lower or higher
pH may cause illness

3. SALTS (15)
formed from the
neutralization of an
acid and a base
occur in the form of
soluble chlorides,
sulfates,
phosphates and
carbonates of
sodium, calcium,
potassium and
magnesium
important in vital
processes such as
irritability of
muscles and nerves,
growth and repair of
tissues, etc.

4. GASES
important in oxidation of food molecule
in order to release energy
two important gases are oxygen and
carbon dioxide

ORGANIC MOLECULES
always contain carbon and hydrogen
atoms are usually held together by
covalent bond
usually composed of long chains
usually associated with living things
includes carbohydrates, lipids,
proteins and nucleic acids

A. CARBOHYDRATES
composed of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen in
definite ratio, 1:2:1, with a
general formula of CH2 O
the main source of energy in
the body
building blocks in glucose
molecules

TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES
1. Monosaccharides = simple sugar
= important source of energy for the
cells
= sub-units of which most
polysaccharides are made
a) Glucose = blood sugar or dextrose
b) Fructose = fruit sugar
c) Galactose = milk sugar

2. Disaccharides = double sugar


= two monosaccharides bonded
together
= principle sugar transported
throughout the bodies of land plants
a) Lactose = milk sugar
b) Maltose = malt sugar
c) Sucrose = table sugar

3. Polysaccharides complex sugar


= many monosaccharides (usually
glucose) bonded together
a) Cellulose structural material in
plants
b) Starch energy storage in plants
c) Glycogen energy storage in
animals

B. LIPIDS
= composed of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen with no definite ratio, the
number of oxygen atoms is very much
less compared to hydrogen atoms
= storage of energy and important
component of the cell membrane
= building blocks are fatty acids and
glycerol

TYPES OF LIPIDS
1.Simple Lipids
(Triglycerides)
= composed of 3 fatty
acids
bonded to glycerol
= include oil and fats,
stearin, palmitin, olein and
waxes

2. Compound Lipids
= composed of lipids found in
combination with other compounds
a) Lipoprotein with protein
b) Glycolipids with carbohydrates
c) Phospholipids with phosphoric
acids

3. Steroids
= composed of four fused rings
of carbon atoms with functional
groups attached
= include cholesterol, a
common component of
membranes of eukaryotic cells

C. PROTEINS
= composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen plus other elements such as sulfur,
iron, iodine, etc.
= for growth and repair of tissues, component of
the cell membrane, act as organic buffer, and
play a major role in chemical reactions as
enzyme, in protection of the body as antibodies
= building blocks are amino acids, which are
united by means of peptide linkage to form
polypeptide chains

TYPES OF PROTEINS
1. Fibrous protein
= the polypeptides are arranged
parallel along a simple axis to produce
long fibers or sheets.
a) Collagen = the most abundant
protein in vertebrates found in bones,
cartilage and skin.
b) Keratin = helical protein, principal
component of hair, skin and nails
c) Fibrinogen = blood plasma
responsible for blood clotting
d) Muscle proteins= actin and myocin,
responsible for muscle contraction

2. Globular Protein
= the polypeptides are so tightly folded
into spherical and globular shape
a) Albumins and globulins = soluble
proteins abundant in animal cells,
blood serum, milk and eggs
b) Hemoglobin the component of
vertebrate blood used to transport
oxygen
c) Enzymes, antibodies and hormones

3. Conjugated Proteins
= simple proteins in union with other
substances
a) Nucleoprotein with nucleic acids
eg. Histones
b) Glycoprotein with carbohydrates
eg. Mucin
c) Lipoprotein with fatty acids
eg. Serum and brain tissue
d) Chromoprotein with pigments
eg. cytochrome

D. NUCLEIC ACIDS
composed of carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
important in protein synthesis as
RNA, and in heredity as DNA
building blocks are the nucleutides,
which are made up of pentose sugar
Ribose for RNA and deoxyribose in
DNA
a nitrogen base
Pyrimidine and purine
Phosphoric acid

In DNA, Purines are:


a) Adenine (A)
b) Guanine (G)
Pyrimidines are:
a) Cytosine
b) Thymine (T)
In RNA, Thymine (T) is replaced by
Uracil (U)