You are on page 1of 37

Cement Production

Portland Cement
By definition
a hydraulic cement
produced by pulverizing
clinker consisting
essentially of hydraulic
calcium silicates, usually
containing one or more of
the forms of calcium sulfate
as an interground addition

Source: PCA, 2003

Raw Materials Necessary for


Portland Cement Manufacture
Must Provide the Following
Calcium
Silica
Alumina
Iron

Calcium

Iron

Silica

Alumina

Sulfate

Alkali waste
Aragonite
Calcite
Cement-kiln
dust
Cement rock
Chalk
Clay
Fullers earth
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Seashells
Shale
Slag

Blast-furnace
flue dust
Clay
Iron ore
Mill scale
Ore washings
Pyrite cinders
Shale

Calcium silicate
Cement rock
Clay
Fly ash
Fullers earth
Limestone
Loess
Marl
Ore washings
Quartzite
Rice-hull ash
Sand
Sandstone
Shale
Slag
Traprock

Aluminum-ore
refuse
Bauxite
Cement rock
Clay
Copper slag
Fly ash
Fullers earth
Granodiorite
Limestone
Loess
Ore washings
Shale
Slag
Staurolite

Anhydrite
Calcium
sulfate
Gypsum

Source: PCA, 2003

Traditional Manufacture of
Portland Cement

Source: PCA, 2003

1. Stone is first reduced to 125 mm (5 in.)


size, then to 20 mm (3/4 in.), and stored.

2. Raw materials are ground to powder and blended.

or

Source: PCA, 2003

2. Raw materials are ground, mixed with water to form slurry,


and blended.

3. Burning changes raw mix chemically into cement clinker.

Source: PCA, 2003

Source: Mindess, Young, and Darwin, 2004

Source: Mindess, Young, & Darwin, 2004

3. Burning changes raw mix chemically into clinker. Note


four stage preheater, flash furnaces, and shorter kiln.

Source: PCA, 2003

PyroProcessing

Source: PCA, 2003

4. Clinker is ground with gypsum into portland cement and


shipped.

Source: PCA, 2003

Clinker

Source: PCA, 2003

Gypsum

Grinding
Clinker is ground with
gypsum (calcium sulfate) to
produce portland cement
Fine grinding is necessary
for high early strength
85-95% -325 mesh (45
microns)
~ 7 trillion particles per
pound

Gypsum absorbs water and


prevents setting of C3A
during shipment

Source: van Oss and Padovani, 2002

Process of Clinker Production

Source: PCA, 2003

Source: PCA, 2003

Source: PCA, 2003

Source: Taylor, 1997

Source: MacLaren and White, 2003

Source: MacLaren and White, 2003

Clinker Phases
Alite or 3CaOSiO2 or C3S
Hydrates & hardens quickly
High early strength
Higher heat of hydration (setting)

Belite or 2CaO SiO2 or C2S


Hydrates & hardens slower than alite
Gives off less heat
High late strength (> 7 days)

Modern cements are


manufactured to be higher in alite
for early strength

Clinker Phases
Aluminate or 3CaO Al2O3
or C3A
Very high heat of hydration
Some contribution to early
strength
Low C3A for sulfate
resistance

Ferrite or 4CaO Al2O3


Fe2O3 or C4AF
Little contribution to strength
Lowers clinkering
temperature
Controls the color of cement

Microscopic Images of Clinker

Microscopic Images of Clinker


Alite

Microscopic Images of Clinker

Belite

Microscopic Images of Clinker

Aluminate

Microscopic Images of Clinker

Ferrite

Types of Portland Cement


ASTM C 150 (AASHTO M 85)
I
II
III
IV
V

Normal
Moderate sulfate resistance
High early strength
Low heat of hydration
High sulfate resistance

Source: Mindess, Young, and Darwin, 2004

Source: Mindess, Young, and Darwin, 2004

Source: Mindess, Young, and Darwin, 2004

Source: Mindess, Young, and Darwin, 2004