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Systems

Number Systems

Stone Age: some stone marks

Roman Empire: more systematic notation I,

II, III, IV, V, VI, VII.VIII, IX, X, C=100,

D=500, M=1000, L=50

Concept of zero by

Maya- I century, Hindu-V century

Positional-value systems:

decimal, binary, octal, etc..

Number Systems

Four number systems

Binary (2 elements)

Octal

(8 elements)

Hexadecimal (16 elements)

for the number system.

Positional-Value System

The value of a digit (digit from Latin

word for finger) depends on its position.

Positional values

2 1 0

(weights)

10 10 10

5 6 7

MSD

We will write ( 5 6 7)

LSD

Computers work only on two states

On

Off

Zero / One

{0,1} and then the base number = 2

A binary digit bit

5 4 3 2 1 0

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 0 1 1 1 1

MSB

Most Significant Bit

LSB

Least Significant Bit

We write: ( 1 0 1 1 1 1)2

and digits are called bits

n

2n

2n

20=1

28=256

21=2

29=512

22=4

3

4

5

6

2 =8

24=16

25=32

26=64

27=128

10 210=1024

kilo

11 211=2048

12 212=4096

20

220=1M

30

40

230=1G

240=1T

Mega

Giga

Tera

Binary Representation

The basis of all digital data is binary representation.

Binary - means two

1, 0

True, False

Hot, Cold

On, Off

We must be able to handle more than just values for real world

problems

1, 0, 56

True, False, Maybe

Hot, Cold, Warm

Number Systems

To talk about binary data, we must first talk about

number systems

The decimal number system (base 10) you should be

familiar with!

A digit in base 10 ranges from 0 to 9.

A digit in base 2 ranges from 0 to 1 (binary number

system). A digit in base 2 is also called a bit.

A digit in base R can range from 0 to R-1

A digit in Base 16 can range from 0 to 16-1

(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F). Use letters A-F to

represent values 10 to 15. Base 16 is also called

Hexadecimal or just Hex.

The traditional number

system is called a

positional number system.

A number is represented

as a string of digits.

Each digit position has a

weight assoc. with it.

Numbers value = a

weighted sum of the digits

represented in any

base by the simple

sum of each digit's

value, positional

notation:

d * basei

Value of number is determined by multiplying each digit by a

weight and then summing. The weight of each digit is a

POWER of the BASE and is determined by position.

( 953 )10 = 9 * 102 + 5 * 101 + 3 * 100

= 900 + 50 + 3 = 953

decimal

= 8 + 0 + 2 + 1

= 11

binary

= 10 * 256

+ 2 * 16 + 15 * 1

= 2560 + 32 + 15 = 2607

hex

The Decimal number system with ten elements

{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} and then the base number = 10

Thousands

Base = 10

Hundreds

Tens

Ones

Binary

Decimal

(1101)2 = 1 * 23 + 1 * 22 + 0 * 21 + 1 * 20

=1*8+1*4+0*2+1*1

=8+4+0+1

(1101)2 = (13)10

1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, .

For each digit position:

(e.g. 2)

2. The remainder is the lowest-order digit

3. Repeat the first two steps until no divisor

remains.

4. For binary the even number has no

remainder 0, while the odd has 1

Decimal

2

2

2

2

13

6

3

1

0

Binary

1

0

1

1

LSB

MSB

(13)10 = (1101)2

Decimal

Binary

37 / 2 = 18 remainder 1

18 / 2 = 9

remainder 0

9 / 2=4

remainder 1

4 / 2=2

remainder 0

2 / 2 = 1 remainder 0

1 / 2=0

remainder 1

(100101)2

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