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Chapter 2: Introduction to

Leadership and
By: Mohammed Hussien (MPH/HSM)
Wollo University


Chapter Objectives
After completion of this chapter, students
will be able to:

Discuss the different types of
management theories

Discuss managerial roles and functions

Differentiate the basic concepts and
practices of management and leadership

Discuss leader shift so as to become a
manager who leads

The evolution of
management theory


or schools of thought. are different. they do not compete with each other  they complement and support each other  Well-trained managers select the management ideas that seem to fit the problem at hand  The historical approaches laid the foundation 4 .The evolution of management theory  Management is such a complex subject that it can be approached from different perspectives or major developments in thought  Although these developments.

Behavioral approach Quantitative approach The systems perspective Contingency schools 5 . Classical (scientific management and administrative management). 2. 5. 3.Approaches to management theory  the major developments in management thought are: 1. 4.

Chronological development of management perspectives 6 .

however.1. with the advent of classical school of management 7 .  standards by which to judge whether performance was good or bad. thought. Classical Schools of Management  Bosses used to make decisions haphazardly. and  follow-up to determine if productivity or quality actually improved when changes were made This all changed. without any systematic study. or collection of information  there were no   procedures to standardize operations.

Classical Schools of Management..  Its followers search for solid principles and concepts that can be used to manage work and people productively  As a result. the classical management theory developed from efforts to find the “one best way” to perform and manage tasks  This school of thought is made up of two branches: 8 ..  The classical school of management is the original formal approach to studying management.

Classical Schools. Classical scientific school  arose because of the need to increase productivity and efficiency  focuses on ways to improve the performance of individual workers (the only way to increase productivity was to increase the efficiency of workers)  the application of scientific methods to increase individual workers’ productivity  there is always one best way and has to be discovered and put in action 9 ...

rather than work methods 10 .. the classical administrative approach concentrates on the total organization  Administrative management was concerned primarily with how organizations should be managed and structured  the development of managerial principles in the structuring and managing of an organization. Classical administrative school  Whereas scientific management focused on the productivity of individuals..Classical Schools.

 These principles provide modern-day managers with general guidelines on how a supervisor should organize her department and manage her staff  One example of his principles is unity of command .Classical Schools. coordinating. organizing.  H. commanding.. and controlling. each worker should receive orders from only one supervisor 11 .. Fayol developed 14 management principles through which management engaged in planning.for any tasks.

such as motivation. Behavioral theorists believed that a better understanding of human behavior at work. The Behavioural Approach      The classical theory ignored employee motivation and behavior. The behavioral management theory emphasizes improving management through an understanding of the psychological makeup of people It is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of encourages managers to take into account the human element 12 . conflict and group dynamics improved productivity The primary strength of this approach is .2.

. Three cornerstones of the behavioral approach  are  the Hawthorne studies.. and  Maslow’s need hierarchy.  Theory X and Theory Y.  These developments contributed directly to managers’ understanding of the importance of human relations on the job  The purpose of the Hawthorne studies was to determine the effects of changes in lighting on productivity 13 .The Behavioural Approach.

.. a theory of motivation  Maslow suggested that humans are motivated by efforts to satisfy a hierarchy of needs  The need hierarchy prompted managers to think about ways of satisfying a wide range of worker needs to keep them motivated 14 . which describes the special attention researchers give to a study’s subjects and the impact that attention has on the study’s findings  It is the tendency of people to behave differently in response to perceived attention from evaluators  Abraham Maslow. developed one of the most widely recognized need theories.The Behavioural It was the origin of the phenomenon of Hawthorne Approach.  effect.

and must be supervised closely.  They believe that workers dislike work. seek to avoid responsibility. possess the capacity to innovate 15 . poses an optimistic set of assumptions... are not ambitious.The Behavioural Approach.  Theory Y.  Theory X is a set of traditional assumptions that managers who hold these assumptions are pessimistic about workers’ capabilities. can exercise self-control. These assumptions include the idea that people do accept responsibility. X and Y theory: the assumptions managers make  about human nature.

Quantitative Approaches     The quantitative approach is often referred to as management science.3. the use of computers in management is synonymous with management science  The development of high-speed computers and of communications among computers provided the means for tackling complex and large-scale organizational problems 16 . It uses a wide array of mathematical and statistical techniques To many people. The management-science school provides managers with a scientific basis for solving problems and making decisions.

4. The Systems Perspective      The systems perspective is based on the concept that an organization is a system or an entity of interrelated parts It is a way of viewing aspects of an organization as an interrelated system Rather than viewing one part of an organization as separate from the other parts. one that interacts with the environment Therefore. Another aspect is to regard the organization as an open system. it is well informed about changes within 17 its surroundings and its position relative to these . a systems approach encourages managers to complicate their thinking by looking for connections between the different parts of the organization.

. outputs and feedback The organization transforms inputs into outputs and supplies them to the outside world. the organization will survive and prosper The feedback loop indicates that the acceptance of outputs by society gives the organization new inputs for revitalization and expansion. An organization as a system is composed of four      elements: inputs. transformation processes. If these outputs are perceived as valuable.. Managers can benefit from this by contributing something of value to external customers and clients 18 .The Systems Perspective.

A Systems View of Organization 19 .

 Two other influential concepts from the systems perspective are entropy and synergy.The Systems Perspective. they can produce much more than they could by working independently 20 ...  Entropy is the tendency of a system to run down and die if it does not receive fresh inputs from its environment  Synergy means that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts  When the various parts of an organization work together.

and employees before taking action to fix them  Contingency thinking avoids the classical “one best way” arguments and recognizes the need to understand situational differences and respond appropriately to them.  It encourages managers to study individual and situational differences before deciding on a course of action.  managers need to spend more time analyzing problems. situations. 21 . Contingency School of Management  The appropriate management actions and approaches depend on the situation.5.  emphasizes that there is no single best way to manage people or work in every situation.

each approach also offers valuable insights that can broaden a manager’s options in solving problems and achieving organizational goals Modern management approaches recognize that people are complex and variable Employee needs change over time.Management in the Future      The best practices of management include the major developments in management thought Successful managers recognize that although each theoretical school has limitations in its applications. should 22 respond to individuals with a wide variety of . therefore. people possess a range of talents and capabilities that can be developed Organizations and managers.

Basic concepts of leadership. management and governance 23 .

it has no agreed definition. definitions are several  Management is the process of accomplishing predetermined objectives through the effective use of human. financial. and technical resources  It is the art of getting things done through people  Efficient utilization of resources for effective achievement of organizational objectives  Managing means planning and using resources efficiently to produce intended results (MSH) 24 .What is Management?  Although management is so old and universal.

 establish operating policies and guide the organization’s interaction with its environment  Establishes long term goals and oversees the work of middle level management 25 . Top level (senior managers)  mangers responsible for the overall management of the organization.Levels of Managers   1. Managers are people formally appointed to positions of authority in organizations or systems who are responsible for the work performance of group members Managers are categorized into three levels.

 responsible for translating strategic goals and plans into more specific objectives and activities 26 .  They are responsible for other managers and sometimes for some operating employees.  report to more senior managers. Middle level managers  Managers located between top-level and frontline managers in the organizational hierarchy.. 2.Levels of Managers..

. involving scheduling employees and establishing detailed procedures to perform worker tasks.Levels of Managers. First-line (front line) mangers  Supervise the operational activities of the organization  have authority and responsibility for overseeing a specific type of work and a particular group of workers (non-management people often called operating employees)  plan for a short term. 27 .. 3.

  Regardless of title or level.  They are accountable to superior for results. 28 .Levels of Managers. managers have several common attributes:  They are formally appointed to positions of authority  They are charged with directing and enabling others to do their work effectively. The primary differences between levels of managers are the degree of authority.. the scope of responsibility and accountability at each level.  They are responsible for utilizing resources..

the manager performs four managerial functions in the context of the management process Planning 1. then you can take any road  involves the process of defining goals. establishing strategies for achieving those goals.Management Functions  To accomplish goals.  If you have no particular destination in mind. and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities 29 .

. Organizing  the process of making sure the necessary human and physical resources are available to carry out a plan and achieve organizational goals  involves assigning activities.. 2.Management Functions. dividing work into specific jobs and tasks. and specifying who has the authority to accomplish certain tasks  involve grouping of activities into departments or some other logical subdivision 30 .

communicating... persuading others. and creating a vision Involves interpersonal processes: motivating. whereas the other three functions focus more on maintaining a stable system 31 . and showing group members how they can reach their goals.Management Functions. coaching. directing. Leading 3.     influencing others to achieve organizational objectives it involves energizing. The leadership aspect of management focuses on inspiring people and bringing about change.

Controlling 4.. given the realities of the day  it causes a manager to return to the planning function temporarily to fine-tune the original plan 32 ..Management Functions.  Controlling generally involves comparing actual performance to a predetermined standard  any significant difference between actual and desired performance would prompt a manager to take corrective action  determining whether the original plan needs revision.

33 .  The term management role refers to specific categories of managerial behavior  Mintzberg grouped the 10 managerial roles in to 3 categories. he concluded that managers perform 10 different but highly interrelated roles.Management roles  Henry Mintzberg says that what managers do can best be described by looking at the roles they play at work  From his study of actual managers at work.

obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature like greeting visitors. Figurehead: Symbolic head. Liaison: Maintains self-developed network of contacts with people outside the organization. .. addressing the media b. such as key partners with whom good working relationships are required 34 . 1. Interpersonal roles: Are based on the use of formal authority and involve interpersonal relationships a.Management roles. Leader: managers motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organizational objectives c.. signing legal documents.

2. results etc 35 . actions. Disseminator: Transmits information received from outsiders or from subordinates to members of the organization c. receiving. and screening information. . . Spokesperson: transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans. Managers need to scan their environments for information that may affect their organization and evaluate the information b.. Monitor: involving seeking.Management roles . Informational roles Informational roles flow from the interpersonal roles and are associated with fulfilling these roles many contacts made while performing figurehead and liaison roles give managers access to a great deal of important information a. policies..

. 3. Resource allocator: Responsible for the allocation of organizational resources of all kinds—making or approving all significant organizational decisions d.Change agent: involve designing and initiating changes within the organization. Entrepreneur . sharing and initiating new ideas or methods b. governments) . 36 clients. Decisional roles The informational roles lead naturally to a range of decisional roles: Managers use information to make decisions a.. Negotiator: Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations (with suppliers.. unexpected disturbances c.Management roles. Disturbance handler: Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important.

37 .

managers must possess three key managerial skills 1.  Technical skills are frequently referred to as hard skills  38 . education and work experience. procedures.Managerial Skills To be effective. processes.  Such skills can be acquired through training. or techniques  It is the managers understanding of the nature of job that people under him/her have to perform. Technical skills  involves an understanding of and proficiency in a specific activity that involves methods.

Interpersonal skill (human relations)  a manager’s ability to work effectively as a team member and to build cooperative effort in the unit.  communication skills are an important component of interpersonal skills  interpersonal skills are often referred to as soft skills  many managers at all levels ultimately fail because their interpersonal skills do not match the demands of the job.2.  an important subset of interpersonal skills for managers is multiculturalism. the ability to work effectively with people from different cultures 39 .

political. and economic forces of the nation as a whole  for top-level management. social. conceptual skill is a priority because executive managers have the most contact with the outside world 40 . Conceptual skill  is the ability to see the organization as a total entity  it includes recognizing how the various units of the organization depend on one another and how changes in any one part affect all the others  a manager deals with the relationship of the organization to its environment: the community.3.

may be constantly required to make decisions on the basis of technical knowledge of procedures  the human skill is critical and equally important for all levels of managers 41 .Managerial Skills...  All levels of managers use the three types of skills in performing management work but in different degree  the senior manager is vitally concerned with visualizing the complex relationships in the organization .conceptual skills  the low level manager.

Management skills by levels of management (Katz 1955) Top Conceptual Middle Front line Human relation Technical 42 .

financial. while management consists of implementing those goals through planning. budgeting.Managing and leading: what’s the difference?  leadership can be defined as the process in which one engages others to set and achieve a common goal. Rakich.  management can be defined as the process of accomplishing predetermined objectives through the effective use of human. developing a vision for the future. 2000)  leadership is concerned with setting a direction for change. staffing …(Kotter 1990) 43 . and technical resources (Longest Jr.. often an organizationally defined goal (Robbins and Judge. 2010). and Darr.

Leading.  When you manage well. staff.. 2007)  leading and managing contribute different things.” (WHO.  “Leaders set the strategic vision and mobilize the efforts towards its realization while good managers ensure effective organization and utilization of resources to achieve results and meet the aims.Managing vs. and 44 .. you ensure that processes and procedures.

Managing vs. Leading. you enable others to face challenges to creating the future that you all envision  You help them to overcome obstacles that stand in the way of desired results and encourage them to adapt to changing conditions  Management skills – the skills required to manage resources in order to deliver a task. motivate and persuade people to buy-in to a vision. objective or goal 45 .  When you lead well. product or services  Leadership skills – the skills required to engage with...

Managing vs... Leading.  Managing is focused on making sure present operations are going well  Leading is about the future  It is involved in the creation of work that generates new energy or reactivates untapped skills that have lain dormant  We define “managing” as planning and using resources efficiently to produce intended results. We define “leading” as mobilizing others to envision and realize a better future 46 .

.  A Manager is a formally appointed and authorized individual in an organization or system to direct and support others to do their work effectively. suggestion or order) group activities towards goal formulation and achievement 47 . oversee resource utilization and accountable for work results  A Leader is an individual in a team capable of influencing (successfully persuade others to follow their advice.Managing vs. Leading..

managers develop the leadership abilities of their staff 48 .Managing vs. Leading...  Leading and managing are complementary to reach for and achieve results  We did not separate leaders from managers  This approach is based on the belief that improvements in health care are made by managers who lead and manage well  Leadership practices improved through a process of facing challenges and receiving feedback and support  By using this process.

involves facing challenges while receiving feedback and support Leadership Development Triangle .Developing managers who lead  The natural process of leadership development.

Developing managers who lead…  What happens if a person faces a challenge without receiving appropriate feedback and support from others? – could be overwhelmed  What is the result of giving people a challenge with too much feedback? – might use the feedback and not their own ideas and initiative. making them dependent 50 . we frustrate them  What is the result of giving them too much support? – might not feel the need to stretch themselves.

 This approach is based on the belief that improvements in health care are made by managers who lead. managing and governing practices  Leading. managing and governing practices Applying these practices consistently leads to strong organizational capacity. lasting improvements in people’s health  51 . better health services and ultimately. managing and governing are complementary to reach for and achieve results.Leading. manage and govern well  Managers who lead. manage and govern should apply the 12 Leading.

managing and governing practices Leading practices  Scanning  Focusing  Aligning and Mobilizing  Inspiring Managing practices  Planning  Organizing  Implementing  Monitoring and Evaluation Governing practices  Cultivate accountability  Engage with stakeholders  Set shared direction  Steward resources  52 .Leading.

your staff. opportunities. and risks that affect the organization look for best practices identify staff capacities and constraints know yourself.Scanning          Scanning involves getting information so you can act on it A critical skill for scanning is listening to others looking for feedback from clients. colleagues. communities . they know . and your organization – values. the organization. and weaknesses Organizational outcome  Managers have up-to-date. valid knowledge of their 53 clients. strengths. and its context. supervisors.adjustments to strategies & plans identify client and stakeholder needs and priorities recognize trends.

54 strategy. and resources on priority actions use what you have learned from scanning for focusing resources are nearly always insufficient or scarce managing your time is focusing.Focusing       managers who lead focus their limited time. because time is a scarce resource. energy. and priorities . develop the crucial ability to  identify critical challenges  determine key priorities for action  create a common picture of desired results Organizational outcome  Organization’s work is directed by well-defined mission.

language. strategy. cultural background.Aligning and mobilizing        ensure congruence of values. professional status. systems. and daily actions facilitate teamwork unite key stakeholders around an inspiring vision link goals with rewards and recognition enlist stakeholders to commit resources the essential skill needed for this practice is being able to connect and work with others toward a common vision. structure. crossing boundaries of gender. or politics Organizational outcome  internal and external stakeholders understand and support the organization’ goals and have mobilized 55 resources to reach these goals . mission.

Inspiring        match deeds to words demonstrate honesty in interactions show trust and confidence in staff. and learning encourage people to be the best they can be Organizational outcome  Organization displays a climate of continuous learning and staff show commitment. innovation. feedback. even when setbacks occur Be a role model Actions DO speak louder than words 56 . and support be a model of creativity. acknowledge the contributions of others provide staff with challenges.

and materials) anticipate and reduce risks Organizational outcome  Organization has defined results. and an operational plan 57 . Without plans. people. Set short and long-term organizational goals and performance objectives Develop multiyear and annual plans allocate adequate resources (money. assigned resources.Planning        Involves the logical sequencing of activities and resources needed to achieve stated objectives. your work environment will be chaotic and performance will be haphazard.

Organizing       ensures that resources are available at the right time. systems. ensure a structure that provides accountability and delineates authority strengthen work processes to implement the plan align staff capacities with planned activities Organizational outcome  Organization has functional structures. and processes for efficient operations. and in the right quantities to get the work done making sure that you have in place the systems. procedures. staff are organized and aware of job responsibilities and expectations 58 . in the right place. and processes that make it possible to execute assigned tasks for staff.

and responsively 59 . effectively.Implementing       integrate systems and coordinate work flow balance competing demands routinely use data for decision-making coordinate activities with other programs and sectors adjust plans and resources as circumstances change Organizational outcome  Activities are carried out efficiently.

Monitoring and Evaluating      monitor and reflect on progress against plans provide feedback identify needed changes improve work processes. procedures. and applies ongoing learning and knowledge 60 . and tools Organizational outcome  Organization continuously updates information about the status of achievements and results.

activities. and outcomes available to the public and the stakeholders  Establish a formal consultation mechanism through which people may voice concerns and provide feedback.Cultivate accountability Sustain a culture of integrity and openness that serves the public interest  Establish. practice and enforce codes of conduct upholding ethical and moral integrity  Embed accountability into the institution  Make all reports on finances. plans. Organizational outcome  • • • Those who govern are accountable to those who are governed The decision making is open and transparent 61 The decisions serve public interest .

by giving them a voice in formal decision-making structures and processes Create and maintain a safe space for the sharing of ideas Provide an independent conflict resolution mechanism Elicit and respond to all forms of feedback in a timely manner Establish alliances for joint action at whole-ofgovernment and whole-of-society levels. including women. Organizational outcome  the institution has an inclusive and collaborative 62 process for making decisions to achieve the shared .Engage with stakeholders        Identify and invite participation from all parties affected by the governing process Empower marginalized voices.

Set shared direction  Prepare. document and implement a shared action plan to achieve the mission and vision of the organization  Set up accountability mechanisms for achieving the mission and vision using measurable indicators  Advocate on behalf of stakeholders’ needs and concerns  Oversee the realization of the shared goals and the desired outcomes Organizational outcome  the institution has a shared action plan capable of achieving objectives and outcomes jointly defined by those who govern and those who are 63  .

analyze and use information and evidence for making decisions Align resources in the health system and its design with the shared goals Build capacity to use resources in a way that maximizes the health and well-being of the public Organizational outcome  The institution has adequate resources for achieving the shared goals and. the resources are raised and used ethically and efficiently to achieve the desired objectives and outcomes 64 .Steward resources      Ethically and efficiently raise and deploy the resources to accomplish the mission and the vision and to serve stakeholders and beneficiaries Collect.

and plan After scanning your environment to identify your challenges. focus. sequential processes that you complete separately The leading practices are not independent of the managing practices Both aim at achieving good results and responding effectively to challenges Facing challenges requires you to scan.Integrating the practices of leading and managing      Leading and managing do not form distinct. you focus on a few priority challenges and make a plan to address them 65 .

creativity..  Once you have a plan that addresses your challenges. staff. and implement the plan to produce results  Throughout this process. organize your team and the work. and learning  The energy to do the work is partially fuelled by inspiring people  Lessons learned about effectiveness and performance are cycled back into new plans through monitoring and evaluation 66 . you inspire your group by enabling your staff to act on their commitment. and resources. you need to align and mobilize your stakeholders.Integrating the practices of leading and managing..

Integrated leading and managing process 67 .

and mutually reinforcing  All three work together to achieve a desired result:  effective leadership is a prerequisite for good governance  effective management is a critical support for good governance. resources. and accountability in support of both leadership and management 68 . and governance are interdependent. and governance  Leadership. overlapping. management. management.  good governance provide purpose.Linkage between leadership.

and Governing for Results Model  The three circles represent the core components of strong and well-functioning organizations 69 . Managing.Figure: Leading.

invest at least 40 percent of your time managing your ethics. too  Leader shift is the attitudinal and 70 make to behavioral shifts that leaders can .Looking at your mindset and values  “If you look to lead. and conduct. motivation.” —Dee Hock  Our behaviors are anchored in how we think  Therefore. principles. attitudes are important. purpose. character.Leader Shift .

Shift your mindset  To become a manager who leads. it is critical to know your values. because they will influence the kind of future you can create and will guide and sustain you on your journey  A mindset is a habitual way of interpreting and responding to situations Examine your beliefs and assumptions 71 . you need to gradually shift your mindset  To shift your mindset.

interconnected actions generosity and concern for the common good 72 .Shift perspective FROM . TO . disconnected activities self-absorption taking responsibility for challenges purposeful. . . individual heroics collaborative actions despair and cynicism hope and possibility blaming others for problems scattered. . . . . .

Leader shift…






From heroic leadership to collaborative
work based on the heroic actions that you take
alone, to collaborative actions that build on the
strength of groups
the challenges you face cannot be addressed if
you think that you must – and are the only one
who can – solve all problems
developing and acknowledging everyone on the
team is critical
to move toward collaborative action, ensure that
everyone is clear about and has agreed to their
roles and responsibilities, and then accountable for
fulfilling them
check that you are delegating tasks that
you do

Leader shift…
2. From despair and pessimism to optimism &

a state of despair or cynicism, where you see insurmountable
problems and obstacles, to a place of hope and dreams,
where you see possibilities to make things better;

It is hard to attract followers if you preach a message of
despair and powerlessness

Yet most planning methodologies start by listing all the
problems, which can quickly overwhelm a group and feed a
feeling of helplessness

This leader shift requires that you develop the leadership
practice of inspiring your staff and breathing life into their

Leader shift…
3. From blaming others to taking on

Reframing an issue from being a problem
that is caused by – and must be solved by –
others to being a challenge that you will
take on

stop feeling like a helpless victim and
become an agent of change

Consider how you might be contributing to

Use proactive language rather than reactive

 Bring your team members together and use their diverse skills and perspectives to solve problems as they occur  people who are preoccupied with their specific area of responsibility often lack the time to share ideas with people working in other relevant areas and miss opportunities to work together and contribute to each other’s objectives 76 . From disconnected activities and busyness to concerted and purposeful action  unrelated activities carried out for their own sake.Leader shift… 4. to purposeful work directed toward achieving results that matter.

your self-absorption will interfere with your ability to provide the stewardship that the health system needs from you and can no longer be effective  check whether your attitudes and actions are helping the people you are serving or distracting 77 you from helping them . to a place where you can generously and compassionately serve a greater good and inspire others to do the same  As long as you remain focused on yourself.Leader shift… 5. From a preoccupation with oneself to generosity and a concern for the common good  Preoccupation with yourself and ways to satisfy your needs.

Thank you!! 78 .