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Theories of


• Enlist the famous theories of human
• Categorize human behavior
according to each of theory
• Discuss Oedipus complex
• Discuss rthe various defence


• An emotion is a mental and
physiological state associated with a
wide variety of feelings, thoughts,
and behavior. Emotions are
subjective experiences, or
experienced from an individual point
of view.

emotional feelings like ’fear’ and ’surprise’. moods often last for hours or days.Mood  • is a relatively long lasting. affective or emotional state • Unlike acute. .

Temperament •  refers to the innate aspects of an individual's personality. . such as  introversion  or extroversion.

Temperamen t • Temperament is that part of the personality which is genetically based. .

. the two together are said to constitute ‘personality’. those aspects acquired through learning).Temperamen t •  Along with character (that is.

motivations. . and behaviors in various situations .Personality •  A dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions.

.Personality • The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona. which means mask.

the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identi ty of a character.Personality • In the theatre of the ancient Latinspeaking world. . but rather was a common method used to represent or typify a character.

Human Development Stages .

. usually mother.Infancy • birth to 15 months: • Bonding of parent to infant • Bonding increases by physical contact between the caregiver and the infant • The main task of infant is the formation of intimate attachment to the primary caregiver.

• Separation from the primary caregiver between 6 – 12 months leads to loud protests from the infant • With prolonged absence of mother the infant can develop anaclitic depression where he is withdrawn and unresponsiveness to others. .

• Anaclitic depression may happen even if the mother is present but is physically and emotionally insensitive to the needs of the child .

Toddler years • 15 months to 2.5 years • A major theme of this stage is separation anxiety from primary caregiver .

may show ‘regression’ • Can distinguish between fantasy and reality .two word sentences • Bathroom profanity • Sibling rivalry.Pre-school child • 2.5 – 6 years • Should be able to stay away from mother for some time • Separation anxiety disorder • Increased vocabulary.

6 years • • • • Consciousness develops (super-ego) Sense of morality Capable of empathy Capable of caring and sharing .

teachers) • Little or no interest in psychosexual issues • Has a sense of moral values .7 – 11 years • Prefers to play with children of same sex • Identifies with parent of same sex • Develops relations with people of same sex (e.g.

Early Adolescence • 11 – 14 years • Development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics • First menstruation and first ejaculation • Strong sensitivity to peer opinion • No clash with parental authority .

body image. popularity • Crushes • Develop an identity (fashion) • Challenging parental rules • Risk taking behavior • Omnipotence .14 – 17 years • Interest in gender roles.

• Education with respect to short term benefits rather than reference to long term consequences of behavior are more likely to reduce teenage risk-taking behavior .

Late Adolescence • 17 – 20 years • Can do self-critique • Can be concerned with world problems • Some develop ability of abstract reasoning • Identity crisis.criminal behavior .

• • • • • Early Adulthood 20 – 40 years Needs intimacy Stable relationships Settling down Career growth .

death • This may lead to: – Infidelity – Depression – Substance abuse .• • • • Middle Adulthood 40 – 65 Has power and authority Has a sense of productivity or emptiness Mid life crisis: – Increased sense of aging.

Late Adulthood • 65 and beyond • Decreased physical and mental functions • Sense of satisfaction and pride or despair and worthlessness • Sleep pattern changes • Anxiety • Depression • Suicide is common .

Theories of Human Developmen t .

 1994) was a Danish-GermanAmerican developmental psychologist  and psychoanalyst  known for his theory on  social development of human beings. 1902 –  May 12.  He may be most famous for coining the  phrase identity crisis .Erik Erikson Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15.


• Stage 1: Basic trust vs mistrust (birth – 1 year) • Infants develop a feeling of trust that their wants will be satisfied. • If parents are not attentive. the infant will learn to mistrust .

• They can be cooperative or stubborn.Stage 2: Autonomy vs Same and doubt ( 1 -3) • Children have a sense of mastery over themselves and their drives. They gain a sense of separateness from others .

Stage 3: Initiative vs Guilt (3 – 5) • Start of intellectual and motor ability • Sexual curiosity • Sibling rivalry .

• They are able to learn and master skills .Stage 4: Industry vs Inferiority (6 – 11) • Starts learning.

Stage 5: Identity vs role diffusion (11 – 19) • Group identity • Preoccupation with appearance • Identity crisis .

friendships and deep relations • Ability to care and share without fear of losing oneself .Stage 6: Intimacy vs isolation (21 – 40) • Intimacy of sexual relations.

Stage 7: Generativity vs stagnation (40 – 65) • Having and raising children • Interests outside home .

Stage 8: Integrity vs despair (65+)
• Sense of satisfaction with one’s life


1856 –1939, an Austrian psychiatrist
who founded the psychoanalytic
school of psychology

• Humans basically want to maximize
please and minimize pain
• They act solely based on these
selfish goals
• Humans act based upon “sexual
urges and aggressive instincts” 


“Defense Mechanisms” • Humans use to blur or become blind to the truth and avoid feeling the pain that may come along with truths people don’t want to face  .

• Sucking and biting are favorite activities. .The Stages • The oral stage: birth to about 18 months. the mouth. of course. • The focus of pleasure is.

. • Holding it in and letting it go are greatly enjoyed.• The anal stage: 18 months to three or four years old. • The focus of pleasure is the anus.

. • Masturbation is common. • The focus of pleasure is the genitalia.• The phallic stage: three or four to seven years.

• The latent stage: five to 12 years old. • Children play "doctor.“ . • Sexual impulse was suppressed in the service of learning.

• The genital stage: begins at puberty. • Represents the resurgence of the sex drive .

Ego and Superego .Structural model of the Psyche Id.

Id • Id comprises the unorganized part of the personality structure that contains the basic drives. • The id acts as a pleasure principle: it seeks immediate enjoyment .

. people seek to satisfy biological and psychological needs” .e.Pleasure Principle “people seek pleasure and avoid pain. i.

The id rules early life. one begins to learn the need sometimes to endure pain and to defer gratification (i. . delay pleasure) because of the emergencies and difficulties of reality. but as one matures.e.

"An ego thus educated has become reasonable. it no longer lets itself be governed by the pleasure principle. even though it is pleasure postponed and diminished". which also at bottom seeks to obtain pleasure. but obeys the reality principle. but pleasure which is assured through taking account of reality. .

“It is the potential for resistance to the reality principle by the sexual drives (id/ pleasure principle) which creates the primary ground of neurosis” .

inaccessible part of our personality • Most of this is of a negative character .It is the dark.

but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle. but it has no organization.• It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts. . produces no collective will.

one’s self. . an inflated sense of self-worth. • It could mean one’s self-esteem. the ego is the part of the mind which contains the consciousness. ego has many meanings. or in philosophical terms. • According to Freud.Ego • In modern-day society.

• The Ego acts according to the reality principle. i. .e. it seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bringing grief.

Reality Principle compels one to postpone instant gratification when necessary because of the obstacles of reality. . It is the governing principle of the ego and stands in opposition to the pleasure principle of the id.

. which contains the passions . • The ego represents what may be called reason and common sense.• The ego is that part of the id which has been modified by the direct influence of the external world .. in contrast to the id.

but only when consequences of these actions are marginal. .• Its main concern is with the individual's safety and allows some of the id's desires to be expressed.

• It criticizes and prohibits his or her drives. and actions. fantasies. mainly unconscious. • It comprises that organized part of the • personality structure. feelings. and 'conscience‘. that includes the individual's ego ideals.Super-ego • The Super-ego aims for perfection. . spiritual goals.

For example: • masturbating • not helping someone in need • rejecting someone’s sincere love .“The Super-ego can be thought of as a type of conscience that punishes misbehavior with feelings of guilt.

Defense Mechanisms .

thus decreasing anxiety and maintaining a person’s sense of safety. equilibrium and self esteem. .Defense mechanisms are unconscious mental techniques used by the ego to keep conflict out of the conscious mind.

.Affiliation : •  Involves turning to other people for support.

.Acting out: The individual copes with stress by engaging in actions rather than reflecting upon internal feelings.

.Avoidance: Refusing to deal with or encounter unpleasant objects or situations.

.Compensation: Overachieving in one area to compensate for failures in another.

. arguing against an anxiety-provoking stimulus by stating it doesn't exist.Denial: • Refusal to accept external reality because it is too threatening.

.Displacement:  is the redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target.

Humor: • Expressing personally uncomfortable feelings without causing emotional discomfort • ( a relatively ‘mature’ defense mechanism) .

. and/or emotions are ascribed onto another person or people. unacceptable or unwanted thoughts.Projection: •   where a person's personal attributes.

Repression: "motivated forgetting.” • Not being able to recall a threatening situation. person.  is the psychological act of excluding desires and wishes or feelings from one's consciousness and holding or subduing them in the unconscious. or event. .

Regression : Temporary reversion of the ego to an earlier stage of development rather than handling unacceptable impulses in a more adult way .

or a student who blames a poor exam score on the instructor rather than his lack of preparation. . a person who is turned down for a date might rationalize the situation by saying they weren't attracted to the other person anyway. • For example. avoiding the true explanation for the behavior.Rationalization: • explaining an unacceptable behavior or feeling in a rational or logical manner.

  . impulse.Reaction formation: reduces anxiety by taking up the opposite feeling. An example of reaction formation would be treating someone you strongly dislike in an excessively friendly manner in order to hide your true feelings. or behavior.

Suppression :   the process of deliberately trying to stop thinking about certain thoughts in which a sufferer will repeatedly (usually unsuccessfully) attempt to prevent or "neutralize" intrusive distressing thoughts .

. anger. and aggression. • It is normally used in reference to hatred.• Turning against the self: (form of displacement) • the person becomes their own substitute target.

  .Undoing: •  involves "magical" gestures or rituals that are meant to cancel out unpleasant thoughts or feelings after they've already occurred.

guilt. .• It is the Freudian explanation for many of our feelings of inferiority. and depression.

Freudians and non-Freudians alike. .depression is often the result of the anger we refuse to acknowledge” is • The idea that “ accepted by many scientists.

. making excuses comes so easy that they never are truly aware of it. • Many of us are quite prepared to believe our own lies. with sensitive egos.• For many people.

  .• All defenses are lies. even if we are not conscious of making them.

from reality.Lies give birth to lies and take us further and further from the truth. .

.After a while. or pay attention to the superego's. the ego can no longer take care of the id's demands.

and you break down. .The anxieties come rushing back.

” .“A childhood full of neglect. abuse. and/ or tragedy tends to lead to an unhappy adult.

Thank You .