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What is Culture?
Culture is the set of shared
attitudes,values, goals,and practicesthat
characterizes an institution, organization
or group




 Metamorphosis: According to organization’s policies , by
adopting & implementing necessary initiatives, both GP &
Teletalk ensures the new employee changes & adjusts to the
work,work group, & organization
 stories: It is a common traits in both GP & Teletalk is anchor the
present into the past &provide explanations & legitimacy for
current practices.
 Rituals: Ritual is repetitive sequences of activities that expresses
& reinforce the key values of the organizations. For example:
Both GrameenPhone & Teletalk celebrate their first inauguration
day & special events
 Language: Both GP & Teletalk use professional languages in
terms of conversations & communications

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they are conservative as they have to follow the strict government rules & regulations & work procedures  Outcome orientation: In Teletalk the managements are more focused towards results or outcomes & Grameenphone put emphasis on techniques & processes to achieve the desired results or outcomes  People orientation: The management decisions are more authority oriented rather than employee oriented . so work range are narrow & task focused in Teletalk. Comparing it with Teletalk. But they also follow the moderate risk taking policy. Innovation & risk taking: In Grameenphone. In this case Grameen phone always maintains a qualitative balance 8 . the company always encourages innovative ideas & encourage employee view point & participation.

 Aggressiveness: The employees of Grameenphone are more competitive & enjoy a bit more liberty as the promotion & the employee career development do not follow fixed ratio process. In Teletalk the employees are more easy going as they have high job security & enjoy government facilities.  Material symbols: GP does more advertising & branding than Teletalk 9 .

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Strong sense of purpose 1.Different employees have different sense of purpose 3.Emotional Stability 3. Teletalk is not so work its corporate social much renowned for its practices responsibilities humanistic work practices 3. All the employees have the common sense of purpose 1.Training process does not focus on emotional stability rather focuses on performance of work 11 . GP is renowned for 3.Humanistic 3.CHARATERISTIC S GRAMEENPHONE TELETALK 1.Training process makes Employees more emotionally stable 3.

Extraversion 4. No adequate facilities to keep their employyees positive affection going 12 . Emphasizes on Group-oriented tasks 5.CHARATERISTIC S GRAMEENPHONE 4. Positive affection 5. Emphasizes on team-oriented tasks 5.Facilities in Grameen phone helps employees keep their positive affection going. TELETALK 4.



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poverty etc.WHY REGULATION? •Externalities (private cost < social cost) •Public goods (free rider problem) •Information asymmetry (lemons market) •Market failure (systemic risk) •Equitable justice (production & distribution) •Consumer welfare (growth vs. development.) 17 .

REGULATING COMPETITION •Competition Policy •Competition Law 18 .


•It includes both economic policies that enhance competition and competition laws. compn law) 20 . Competition Policy = f (ecoc policy.DEFINITION OF COMPETITION POLICY • Competition Policy refers to a set of government measures that enhance competition or competitive outcomes in the markets.

RELEVANT ECONOMIC POLICIES •International trade policy •Industrial policy •Privatization reform policy •Labor policy •Exchange rate policy •Fiscal policy •Monetary policy •Regulatory reform policy •Intellectual property rights policy 21 .


COMPETITION LAW The most ancient example of competition law is the Lex Julia de Annona of Rome in around 50BC. 1957 the Act Against Unfair Restraints of • Germany: Competition. 1957 the Act Concerning Prohibition of Private • Japan: Monopoly and Maintenance of Fair Trade. 1890 • United States: • United Kingdom: the Monopolies and Restrictive Practices (Inquiry and Control) Act. 1947 23 . But in today’s world we havethe Sherman Act. 1948 • European Union: the Treaty of Rome.

industrial.COMPETITION LAW CONTD. small. •Competition law is now in place in all six continents. •More than half of WTO members have adopted a competition law. advanced. liberal and postcommunist. trading. agricultural. island. •Since the beginning of the 1990s. 24 . the number of systems of competition law has proliferated. continental. developing. and in all kinds of economies—large.

•There are no evidences documenting the anticompetitive behavior of business companies operating in Bangladesh.IN BANGLADESH •In the absence of an established and effective competition legislation. restrictive trade practices have prevailed in the markets and eroded consumer interests & rights. •The most common anti-competitive actions are shown in the diagram25 .

IN BANGLADESH (Cont…) 26 .

1970 is valid but never got implemented. and –To prohibit. control and eradicate anticompetitive practices. 2012: –To encourage. • Recently Bangladesh has enacted the Competition Act. 27 . ensure and maintain competitive environment in business.LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF COMPETITION LEGISLATION • Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practice (Control and Prevention) Ordinance.

Investigation. etc. Chapter V: Review. Penalties. etc. etc. Chapter III: Anti-Competitive Agreements. abuse of dominant position. etc. Chapter IV: Complaints.CONTENTS OF THE ACT The Act contains 7 chapters and 46 sectionsChapter I: Preliminary Chapter II: Establishing Bangladesh Competition Commission. Orders. Chapter VI: Financial Matters of the Commission Chapter VII: Miscellaneous 28 . Appeal.

PROHIBITED/REGULATED ANTI-COMPETITIVE PRACTICES •Anti-competitive agreements (section 15) •Abuse of dominant position (section 16) • Anti-competitive Combination (section 21) (acquisitions and mergers) 29 .


in respect of production. which causes or is likely to cause an adverse effect on Competition or creates monopoly or oligopoly in the market. directly or indirectly. storage. acquisition or control of goods or provision of services.PROHIBITION ON ANTICOMPETITIVE AGREEMENTS Section 15 of the Act:  ‘No person shall enter into any agreement. supply. distribution.’ 31 .

Horizontal agreements (a) Price fixing agreements [section 15(2)(a)(i)] (b) Bid-rigging agreements [section 15(2)(a)(ii)] (c) Market allocating agreements [section 15(2)(b) & (c)] (d) Output restricting agreements [section 15(2)(b) & (c)] (e) Joint boycott 2. Vertical agreements (a) Tie-in sale agreement [section 15(3)(a)] (b) Exclusive supply agreement [section 15(3)(b)] (c) Exclusive distribution agreement [section 15(3)(c)] (d)Refusal to deal [section 15(3)(d)] (e) Resale price maintenance [section 15(3)(e)] (f) Quantity forcing 32 .ANTI-COMPETITIVE AGREEMENTS 1.

WHEN ANTI-COMPETITIVE AGREEMENTS ARE TOLERATED? • To protect intellectual property right [section 15(4)(a)] • To protect the right of any person to export goods [section 15(4)(b)] 33 .


it is called a ‘dominant firm’ which typically has a large market share. 35 .DOMINANCE • Dominance means having ‘substantial market power’. • When one firm acts as a price setter and faces smaller price-taking firms. • The smaller price-taking firms are called ‘fringe firms’.

36 .PROHIBITION ON ABUSE OF DOMINANCE Section 16 of the Act : No corporation or business entity shall abuse its dominant position.

i. 37 . imposes unfair or discriminatory condition in purchase or sale of goods or service. or ii. production of goods or provision of services or market therefore. or price in purchase or sale (including predatory price) of goods or service.WHAT IS ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION? Section 16(2) of the Act: there shall be an abuse of dominant position. (b) limits or restricts . if an enterprise(a) directly or indirectly. technical or scientific development relating to goods or services to the prejudice of consumers.

or   (d) makes conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by other parties of supplementary obligations which. have no connection with the subject of such contracts.Contd… (c) indulge in practice or practices resulting in denial of market access. or protect. by their nature or according to commercial usage. other relevant market. (e) uses its dominant position in one relevant market to enter into. 38 .

TYPES OF ABUSE OF DOMINANCE Exploitative practices ⁻ IPR and Excessive pricing ⁻ Price Discrimination ⁻ Tie-ins Exclusionary practices ⁻ Refusal to deal ⁻ Predatory pricing ⁻ Non-price predation ⁻ Exclusive dealing ⁻ Boycott 39 .


41 . • Other combinations require approval of the Bangladesh Competition Commission.COMBINATIONS Sec 21 of the Act: • Anti-competitive combinations are prohibited.

TYPES OF COMBINATIONS • Horizontal combinations • Vertical combinations • Conglomerate combinations 42 .


and the Special Powers Act.REGULATORY CHALLENGE I Compatibility with other laws have not been adequately researched. 1948. 1974. 1953. Will there be any possibility of regulatory arbitrage? For example. the Essential Articles (Price Control and AntiHoarding) Act. 44 . some Anti-competitive Agreements are also punishable under the Holding and Black Market Act.

For example.REGULATORY CHALLENGE II Concurrency and conflict with sectoral regulators might frustrate the purpose of the competition law. how would the SEC or the BERC would envisage its regulatory role visà-vis BCC? 45 .

’ 46 . Bangladesh Competition Commission is a quasi judiciary body.REGULATORY CHALLENGE III Absence of Investigating arms may go against the principle of natural justice. ‘One cannot be judge of one’s own cause.

is there too much discretion given to the Commission? 47 .REGULATORY CHALLENGE IV Economic factors that can be used to determine whether an agreement has adverse effects on competition has not been generally or specifically identified. In absence.

REGULATORY CHALLENGE V No provision for Leniency Program was included in the Act. Market regulation would not benefit from the service of whistleblowers. 48 .

REGULATORY CHALLENGE VI Who will run the show? Does Bangladesh have enough competition experts? Is there not also mass ignorance about competition law and policies? (participatory regulation vis-à-vis big stick regulation. etc. market chit-chat.) 49 .