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Values Education

Dorothy Silva-Jamero
School of Teacher Education
Saint Louis University

Non-rationalism vs.
Rationalism

Non-rationalism
O Revolves around the idea that man

has to adapt himself to nature and to


forces outside of himself
O Involves the uncritical acceptance,
reverence, and protection of traditions
and rituals.
O Resistance to scientific methods
O An unswerving loyalty to the group
O Unquestioning obedience to authority

Rationalism
O Involves a belief that by

systematic planning, studying,


and training, one can actively
control and manipulate his or
her destiny
O One is greatly responsible for
his or her own success or
failure

Rationalism
O Future-oriented
O Scientific-oriented
O Guided by curiosity,

observation, and
experimentation
O High priority to self-expression
and creativity over group
conformity and security

The Filipinos: non-rational


or rational
O Western rationalism
O Oriental non-rationalism

O Filipinos view the world as one

over which they have little or


no control
O Success or failure is largely
dependent upon supernatural
beings or spirits

Bahala na

O Fatalistic outlook that rests on

the strong dependence on the


spirits as these will take care of
everything for everybody
O Filipinos often say this
expression when about to
perform a particular task which
may be difficult to
accomplish

Positive and Negative


O Underlies the Filipinos determination,

courage, fortitude, and willingness to


face danger
O Readiness to accept and bear the
consequences of difficulties in life the
source of their patience or tiyaga
O Involves a deep abiding faith that the
supernatural spirits will in the long run
reward with good fortune ones struggle
against difficulties

O Lack of foresight
O Contentment with the past
O Indolence
O Lack of initiative

O Lack of self-reliance or pioneering

spirit
O Segurista
O Gaya-gaya (imitativeness)
OFacade
OPalabas
OPakitang-tao
OPagyayabang

O Punctuality
O Vulnerability to awa
O Dependence on the espiritista,

the mangkukulam or witch

1. Tinalaga ng Dyos
2. Iginuhit ng tadhana
3. Gulong ng palad
4. Malas
5. Napasubo

Status-oriented
behavior
O Hiya
O Utang ng loob
O Amor propio
O SIR

O Accentuation of authoritarian

nature of the Filipinos


O Filipinos are authoritarian
(even dictatorial) when given
power
O Lets everyone know that he is
the boss

Statusoriented

Functionoriented

O Subjectivity

O Objectivity

O Emotionalism

O Standardized

O Demoralization
O Inefficiency

criteria are used

Shame-oriented Hiya
O Concern for social approval
O Acceptance by a group
O Belonging to a group
O Behavior what others will

think, say, or do
O Desires and ambitions what
pleases or displeases them

Amor Propio
O High self-esteem
O Shown in the sensitivity of a

person to hurt feelings and


insults, real or imagined
O Hiya
O Utang ng loob
O SIR

O Use of polite language


O Soft voice
O Gentle manner
O Indirect approaches like

employing intermediaries and


euphemisms
O Ambiguous expressions

O Difficulty to say no to a

request or an invitation
O Uses of expressions like
O Kuwan
O Marahil
O Tila nga
O Pipilitin ko

O Pakikisama is good public

relations or the avoidance of


open disagreement or conflict
with others
O Utang na loob refers to a debt
of gratitude for a favor or help
extended to a person which is
impossible to quantify

O Failure to discharge partial

payment in the form of gifts or


services will cause hiya

Forms of amor propio


O Hele-hele bago quiere or pakipot
O Requires that a person initially

refuse an offer even if he or she


is subjected to more prodding
O Delicadesa
O Means conformity with the

ethical practices or expectations


of the group

O Family still stresses patient

suffering in the Filipino female


O Results in the double standard
of morality and the consensus
that a womans principal duty is
attending to the home

Personalism vs.
Impersonalism

Personalism
O Attaches major importance to

personal factor which guarantees


intimacy, warmth and security of
kinship, and friendship in getting
things done

Impersonalism
O Tendency to eliminate the influence

of friendship or kinship in working


situations

The Filipinos
O Nepotism
O Favoritism
O Particularism
O Graft and corruption products of

this kinship reciprocity relations

O Personalism has a deterring effect on

the economic, social, and political


growth of the country
O The Filipinos inability to dissociate
personalities from function and
positions make it difficult for them to
make sound judgments

Resort to
O Pakiusap
O Areglo
O Lakad

Particularism vs.
universalism

Universalism
O Advancement of the collective or

national good
O Legal rules
O Societys general welfare

Particularism
O Relatives
O Friends
O Colleagues
O Associates
O Religious affiliates
O Members of his ethnic regional group
O Ethical rules

Particularism
O Tayo-tayo
O Ritual kinship
O Wedding
O Baptismal
O Confirmation rites

O Regionalistic
O Secondary as Filipinos

Filipino Nationalism

O Advocacy of making ones own

nation distinct and separate from


others in intellectual, social, cultural,
economic, political, and moral
matters

O It is the feeling of oneness among

the nationals who seek to establish


the identity and the good of the
nation in these matters.

O More than just a sentiment of love or

affection or a feeling of patriotism for


ones country, nationalism is a
philosophy or a doctrine of what a
country is, what its goals are,
and how it is to achieve these
goals.

O Factor for either evil or good


O Extreme side
O Ethnocentrism
O Racism
O xenophobia

O Constructive side
O Analytical self-knowledge of the weak
O Strong points of the country
O Supports the universalistic values

For Filipinos
O National amnesia
O Colonial mentality
O Lack of national integration