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The changing roles and power of


The notion of active and passive

Active audiences are those who
consume media and then actively
get involved with others discussing
said media, whereas passive
audiences just consume media and
do nothing further.

Pluralist versus Marxist ideas

What is Marxism? At the heart of Marxism is the belief that all capitalist societies function
on the same principles. Society is formed of the economic base and the superstructure.
A capitalist society can only work if the people within society accept that they need
things. It is through the economic base that production of these things occur. This is
consumerism. In order to make people think they want and need certain things you need
the superstructure social and cultural institutions such as The Army, Police, Legal
System, Political System, Education, Religion, the notion of family and of course the Media.
These institutions control our cultural and social beliefs in a way that keep consumerism
and capitalism going. Within this you have the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. These are
the people themselves the bourgeoisie are the rich, powerful people who are in control.
They want everything to stay the same because if it does they continue to have power,
control and money. The proletariat are the workers, the people who form they economic
base. They help the cycle of consumerism by producing and consuming these things or
ideas and beliefs.
What is Liberal Pluralism? Liberal Pluralism challenges the ideas put forward in Marxism but
it is also linked to us living in a capitalist world. At the heart of Liberal Pluralism is the belief
that society is made up of many different groups with competing interests whilst the media
is subject to the wishes of the consumer (supply & demand). Therefore the media present a
range of ideologies, views and opinions and the audience select and reject those ideologies
offered to them depending on their interests. In Liberal Pluralism the media can sometimes
be considered an agent for democracy since it can allow a range of different ideologies to
be heard by lots of people. Breaking down Liberal Pluralism; Liberalism is the belief in the
importance of liberty and equal rights Pluralism is the acknowledgement of diversity of
interests and people (plural literally means many)

The role of social media and

audiences as producers
Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and Vine
(RIP) users create videos and other
things to entertain others.

Postmodern ideas about fragmented

Postmodernism is a late 20th-century
style and concept in the arts,
architecture, and criticism, which
represents a departure from
modernism and is characterized by
the self-conscious use of earlier
styles and conventions, a mixing of
different artistic styles and media,
and a general distrust of theories.

Globalisation refers to the way in which, in contemporary
society, distant countries are inter-related and connected
together by trade communication and cultural
experiences. The global sales of film, TV and media
products , along with the Internet bring people in
developing countries into direct contact with western
media products. Consider the global reach of companies
such as Disney, News Corporation and Time Warner. Their
products can be seen globally facilitated by satellite and
the Internet. It has been argued that in an increasingly
globalised world there is a danger that local cultures
become eroded and replaced with a single, standard
culture. - This is known as Cultural Homegenisation

Post-colonial theory
Most European countries, including the UK have a history of
military imperialism. They would conquer less developed
countries and impose their rule on them . This was usually
to ensure a supply of cheap materials from that country to
help support the economy. Former British colonies include
India, South Africa, Australia, Jamaica and the USA at one
point, GB ruled half the world. These colonies eventually
became independent and set up their own governments.
However, it can be argued that much of the culture of the
imperial countries (eg. Their language) still lingers on in the
former colonies as a reminder of colonial rule. Also, the
process of decolonisation has not prevented the Western
powers from tightening their economic grip on the rest of
the world. The wealth of economically developed countries
increasingly depends on the cheap labour and raw materials
supplied by the Third World.

Feminism and Post-feminism

However, by definition feminism
strives for gender equality, whereas
post feminism must in some way
move past or transcend the absolute
need for gender equality

Queer Theory
A field of critical theory that emerged in the
early 1990s. Explores and challenges the
way in which heterosexuality is constructed
as normal. And the way in which the media
has limited the representations of gay men
and women. Challenges the traditionally
held assumptions that there is an
oppositional divide between being gay and
heterosexual. Suggests sexual identity is
more fluid.

Celebrity and fan culture