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CLAMPING AND LOCATING PRINCIPLES

3-2-1 PRINCIPLE OF LOCATION

3-2-1 PRINCIPLE OF LOCATION

3-2-1 PRINCIPLE OF LOCATION

LOCATING PINS

SUPPORTING LOCATING PINS

CLAMPING DEVICES
Mechanical Clamping
Power Clamping

MECHANICAL CLAMPING
Strap or Lever clamp
Latch Clamp
Hinged clamp
C - clamp
Cam operated clamp
Wedge clamp
Quick acting nut

MECHANICAL CLAMPING
Toggle clamp
Bayonet clamp
Hook bolt clamp
Equalizing clamp
Pneumatic and hydraulic actuation clamps

1. STRAP OR LEVER CLAMP


Bridge clamp
Sliding bridge clamp
Simple heel clamp
Sliding clamp with an adjustable heel pin
Edge clamp

BRIDGE CLAMP

SLIDING BRIDGE CLAMP

SIMPLE HEEL CLAMP

SLIDING CLAMP WITH AN FIXED


HEEL PIN

SLIDING CLAMP WITH AN ADJUSTABLE HEEL


PIN

EDGE CLAMP

2.LATCH CLAMP
Latch clamp
Button type swing clamp
Simple swing clamp

Latch clamp

BUTTON TYPE SWING CLAMP

LATCH CLAMP

SIMPLE SWING CLAMP

3. HINGED CLAMP
Hinged clamp
Cam operated hinged clamp
Two way hinged clamp

HINGED CLAMP

CAM OPERATED HINGED CLAMP

TWO WAY HINGED CLAMP

4. C - CLAMP
Free C clamp
Captive C - clamp

FREE C CLAMP

CAPTIVE C - CLAMP

5. CAM OPERATED CLAMP


Cam actuated plate clamp
Eccentric clamp

CAM ACTUATED PLATE CLAMP

ECCENTRIC CLAMP

6. WEDGE CLAMP

7. QUICK ACTING NUT

8. TOOGLE CLAMP
C - frame type toggle clamp
Pusher type toggle clamp
Wedge type toggle clamp

C - FRAME TYPE TOGGLE CLAMP

PUSHER TYPE TOGGLE CLAMP

WEDGE TYPE TOGGLE CLAMP

BAYONET CLAMP

10. HOOK BOLT CLAMP

11. EQUALISING CLAMP

POWER CLAMPING
Pneumatic and hydraulic actuation clamps
Vacuum clamping
Magnetic clamping
Electrostatic clamping

PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC


ACTUATION CLAMPS
Fluid power clamp
Air - to hydraulic booster

FLUID POWER CLAMP

AIR - TO HYDRAULIC BOOSTER

STANDARD PARTS OF JIGS AND


FIXTURES
Bases
Rest buttons
Pins
Handles and hand knobs
Feet lift rings
Clamp and pressure feet
Drill busses
Threaded fasteners
Stock sections

BASES

PINS

REST BUTTONS

HANDLES AND HAND KNOBS

FEETS

Location of jig feet

LIFITING RING

CLAMP STRAP AND CAM

STOCK SECTIONS

DRILL BUSHES
Fixed or press fit bushes
Renewable bushes
Slip bushes
Threaded bushes or Screwed
bushes
Linear bushes
Special bushes

FIXED OR PRESS FIT BUSHES


Fixed bushes are most
common
and
least
expensive, permanent
bushes.
These
bushes
are
press fitted and are
designed for one step
operation
such
as
drilling and reaming.
The
bushings
are
pressed directly into
jig plate.
They are held in plates

RENEWABLE BUSHES
For continuous or large batch production. the inside diameter of
the bush is subjected to severe wear due to continuous contact
with hard cutting tool.
The guide bushes require periodic replacement. The
replacement is simplified by making the outside diameter
precision location fit (h6).
The bushes can then be assembled manually without any press.
The use of liner in the jig plate provides hardened wear resistant
mating surface to the renewable bush (Fig.).
The renewable bush must be prevented from rotating and
moving axially with the cutting tool. This is accomplished by
provision of a flat on the collar. The flat arrests with the collar of
the retainer shoulder screw to prevent rotation.
The bush flange below the collar of the shoulder screw prevents
the bush from getting lifted with the cutting tool

SLIP BUSHES
When a hole in the workpiece requires two operations
such as drilling and reaming, it is necessary to use two
different guide bushes for the different tools.
The hole is first drilled using a bush having a bore suitable
for the drill. After drilling, the drill bush is removed and a
reaming bush is used to guide the reamer.
In mass production, the changeover of these bushes
should be effected quickly. This is accomplished by
provision of slip bushes.
There are a number of different types of slip bushes in
use. In the most common type, the bush is provided with
a flat on the head similar to the renewable bush and a
circular cutout in the flange to facilitate quick assembly
and removal (Fig.).

THREADED BUSHES OR SCREWED


BUSHES
The bushes used for clamping the
workpiece are threaded on the
outside.
There should be another plain
guiding diameter for accurate
location of the bush.
The collar of the liner bush is
usually placed on the opposite side
to take the axial thrust of the screw.
The liner bush should be prevented
from rotation by a grub screw or a
flat on the collar (Fig.).
The flat mates with a machined
step on the jig plate.

LINEAR BUSHES

THREADED FASTENERS

MATERIALS USED FOR JIGS AND


FIXTURES
HSS - High Speed Steel
Cast iron
Mild Steel
Steel Casting
Carbon Steel
Die Casting
OHNS - Oil Hardening Non-Shrinking Tool Steel
Nylon or Fibre
Phospher Bronze

JIGS

ELEMENTS OF A JIG
Jig body
Jig feet
Drill bush
Jig plate
Locators
Clamps

TYPES OF JIGS
Boring Jig
Drill Jig
Template Jig
Plate Jig
Sandwich Jig
Latch or Leaf Jig
Channel Jig
Box Jig
Post jigs or Angle plate Jig

TYPES OF JIGS
Angular post Jig
Turnover jig or Table type Jig
Pot Jig
Solid Jig
Trunnion Jig
Indexing Jig
Universal Jig
Pump Jig
Multi Station Jig

BORING JIG

DRILL JIG

PLATE JIG
Plate-type
jigs
mainly
consist of a single bush
plate with a provision for
location and the clamping
of workpiece.
Sometimes,
it
is
economical to make the
jigs channel shaped in
order to simplify location
and clamping

TEMPLATE JIG
Template jigs are normally used for accuracy
rather than speed. This type of jig fits over,
on or into the work and is not usually
clamped. Templates are the least expensive
and simplest type of jig to use. They may or
may not have bushings, when bushings are
not used , the whole jig plate is normally
hardened.
Disadvantages
Not as foolproof as other types
Orientation of the hole pattern to
workpiece datums may not be as accurate as
other types
They are usually not practical when locating
datums are dimensioned

SANDWICH JIG
Sandwich jigs are a form
of plate jig with a back
plate. This type of jig is
ideal for thin or soft
parts which could bend
or warp, in other type of
jig.
Here again, the use of
bushing is determined
by the number of parts
to be made.

LATCH OR LEAF JIG


Leaf-type jigs are particularly
suitable for work pieces
having location surfaces and
holes to be drilled on opposite
sides. As shown in the figure,
the jig plate is often used to
house the clamping screw.

CHANNEL JIG
In
any
drill
jig,
the
workpiece
should
be
supported
adequately
against bending due to the
downward thrust of the
drill.

Furthermore, there should


be enough clearance below
the workpiece for overshoot
of the drill after passing
through the workpiece.

BOX JIG
Workpieces having holes on a
number of sides can be drilled
economically with box jigs.
The jig body is generally shaped like
a box with one side open for loading
and unloading the workpiece.
The open side is provided with a
hinged latch which often houses
bushes and clamping screws.
The jig is fitted with bushes on
various sides and suitable jig feet on
the opposite sides.

POST JIGS OR ANGLE PLATE JIG


(VERTICAL)
Angle-plate jigs are used to
hold parts that are machined
at right angles to their
mounting locators.
Pulleys, collars, and gears are
some of the parts that use
this type of jig.

POST JIGS OR ANGLE PLATE JIG


(HORIZONTAL)
As the drill exits the product being
drilled, it has little or no room for the
drill point to clear the product
completely, produce a round hole all
the way through the part wall, and
avoid drilling the part locator.
This is most noticeable, where an
angled
hole
requires
additional
clearance to the relieved portion of
the part locator.
Additional clearance here would allow
the drill to complete the hole and
avoid drilling the relieved portion of
the locator.

ANGULAR POST JIG


A variation is the modified
angle-plate jig, which is used
for machining angles other
than 90 degrees.
Both of these examples have
clearance problems with the
cutting tool.

TURNOVER JIG OR TABLE TYPE JIG


Work pieces which are not having suitable
resting surfaces for drilling can be drilled
conveniently with turn over jig.
A C washer and a hand knob provide
quick clamping.
The height of the feet must be longer
than the clamping stud to provide proper
resting face during drilling.
All turn-over jigs must be turned over for
the loading and unloading the workpiece.
After loading the workpiece, the jig must
be turned over again to rest on the jig
feet for drilling as shown in the figure.
Turn-over jigs are very convenient for
drilling flanged workpieces which must be
drilled from the flange end.

POT JIG

The pot is machined with bigger slots


or holes for passage of the drill and
disposal of chips.

These slots must be aligned with the


drill bushes in the jig (bush) plate. This
is accomplished by providing a location
pin in the pot and a corresponding slot
in the jig plate.

As shown in the figure, the pot is also


used for anchoring the clamping stud.
Moreover, the base of the pot also
provides a square resting surface for
drilling.
The plate jig locates the workpiece with
a spigot which engages into the
machined bore of the workpiece.
The

Cee

washer

facilitates

quick

SOLID JIG

TRUNNION JIG

INDEXING JIG

MULTI STATION JIG

AUTOMATIC DRILL JIG


Rack and Pinion operated Drill Jig
Air operated Drill Jig
Hydraulic Operated Jig
Pneumo - Hydraulic Jig

RACK AND PINION OPERATED DRILL


JIG

AIR OPERATED DRILL JIG

TYPES OF FIXTURE
Turning Fixture
Milling Fixture
Boring Fixture
Broaching Fixture
Grinding Fixture
Assembly Fixture
Inspection Fixture
Welding Fixture
Modular Fixture systems
Quick change Fixtures

LATHE OR TURNING FIXTURE


Faceplate Turning Fixture
Built Up Turning Fixture
Turning fixture mainly consists of workpiece locating
and clamping elements.
These fixtures are used for facing, boring and turning
operations. For all these operations, the workpiece must
be positioned correctly with respect to the rotating
machine spindle.
For boring and turning, the axis of the bore or the
outside diameter to be machined must be aligned with

FACEPLATE TURNING FIXTURE

BUILT UP TURNING FIXTURE


Used for machining
bearing housing

MILLING FIXTURE
49

Plain Milling Fixture


Line Milling Fixture
Gang Milling Fixture
Key-way Milling Fixture

PLAIN MILLING FIXTURE

LINE MILLING FIXTURE

GANG MILLING FIXTURE

KEY-WAY MILLING FIXTURE

BORING FIXTURE
Stub bar Boring
Single - Piloted bar Boring
Double - Piloted bar Boring

SINGLE - PILOTED BAR BORING

DOUBLE - PILOTED BAR BORING

BROACHING FIXTURE
Key-way Broaching Fixture
External Surface Broaching Fixture

KEY-WAY BROACHING FIXTURE

EXTERNAL SURFACE BROACHING


FIXTURE

GRINDING FIXTURE
Cylindrical Grinding Fixture
Surface Grinding Fixture

CYLINDRICAL GRINDING
FIXTURE

SURFACE GRINDING FIXTURE

PLANNING FIXTURE

SHAPING FIXTURE
Internal Keyway Cutting Fixture
Slot or External keyway Cutting Fixture

INTERNAL KEYWAY CUTTING


FIXTURE

SLOT FIXTURE

ASSEMBLY FIXTURE

INSPECTION FIXTURE
In-process Inspection
Fixture
Off-process
Inspection Fixture

WELDING FIXTURE
Butt Welding Fixture
Wing Nut Welding Fixture
Angle Frame Welding Fixture
Tack Welding Fixture

BUTT WELDING FIXTURE

WING NUT WELDING FIXTURE

ANGLE FRAME WELDING


FIXTURE

MODULAR FIXTURING SYSTEMS


Sub - Plate System
T - Slot System
Dowel Pin System

SUB - PLATE SYSTEM


It is a most
elementary and
basic type of
fixture
It uses series of
flat grid plate,
angle plates,
multisided
tooling blocks
and similar
component as
major structural
element

T - SLOT SYSTEM
T-slot system uses
a
series
of
precisely
machined
base
plates,mounting
blocks, and other
elements
having
machined
and
groud T-slots.
Advantages are its
adaptabilities,stre
ngth,ease
positioning
of

DOWEL PIN SYSTEM


The dowel pin
system is similar in
its basic design to Tslot system.both the
overall size
capabilities and
range components
are very similar
The major
difference is in the
grid pattern of holes
used to locate and
mount the other
accessories.