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Carbon and Organic

Compounds

Organic vs. Inorganic


Organic compounds contain carbon that
is covalently bonded to non-metals

Comparison of Properties of Organic


and Inorganic Compounds
Property
Solubility in inorganic
solvent (water)
Solubility in organic
solvent (toluene)
Conductivity
Flammability
Volatility
Melting Point
Boiling Point

Organic

Inorganic

Comparison of Properties of Organic


and Inorganic Compounds
Property

Organic

Inorganic

Solubility in inorganic
solvent (water)

Generally not soluble

soluble

Solubility in organic
solvent (toluene)

Generally soluble

Not soluble

Conductivity

Non-conductive

conductive

Flammability

Generally flammable

Not flammable

Volatility

More volatile

Not volatile

Melting Point

Low

High

Boiling Point

Low

High

The position of carbon in the periodic table.

Carbons Key Properties


Has a mid-range electronegativity value
so it forms covalent bonds and shares
electrons
Can form a maximum of four bonds
Can form chains, sheets, and rings
Usually combined with H and often
bonds with O, S, N and P

Forms

HYDROCARBONS
Carbon Skeletons and Hydrogen Skins

Each C can form a maximum of four single bonds, OR two


single and one double bond, OR one single and triple bond.
The arrangement of C atoms determines the skeleton, so a
straight chain and a bent chain represent the same
skeleton.
Groups joined by single bonds can rotate, so a branch
pointing down is the same as one pointing up.

The Other Carbon Bonds


If carbon is not bound to anything else in an
organic compound, it will be attached to
hydrogen.

C C C C C
|
C

Ways of depicting formulas and models of an alkane.

ring

Some five-carbon skeletons.

C
single
bonds
C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C

double
bond
C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C

C
C
C
C

Saturated and Unsaturated


When the carbon in organic compounds
forms only single bonds we say that the
compound is saturated (cant add
anything more).
If there are double or triple bonds,
these can be broken to add more atoms.
In this case we say that the compound
is unsaturated.

Isomers
When two compounds have the same
chemical formula but different
structural formulas they are called
isomers.
There are many kinds of isomers
depending on where the carbons are
placed and how bonds are arranged.

Isomers and Vision

If you take beta carotene and split the


molecule, you get 2 Vitamin A molecules.
These are related to retinal.
Retinal changes form when a photon of
light strikes it.
http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembo
ok/531vision.html

Depicting cycloalkanes.
H

H
C

H C
H

C H

H C

C H

H C

C H

cyclobutane
cyclopropane

Boiling points of the first 10 unbranched


alkanes.

An analogy for optical isomers.

Some molecules with the alcohol functional group.

Some common aldehydes and


ketones.

methanal
(formaldehyde)
used to make
resins in
plywood,
dishware,
countertops;
biological
preservative

ethanal
(acetaldehyde)
narcotic product
of ethanol
metabolism;
used to make
perfume,
flavors, plastics,
other chemicals

benzaldehyde
artificial
almond
flavoring

2-butanone
2-propanone
(acetone) solvent (methyl ethyl
ketone)
for fat, rubber,
important
plastic, varnish,
solvent
lacquer;
chemical
feedstock

Some molecules with the carboxylic acid


functional group.
methanoic acid
(formic acid)
an irritating
component of
ant and bee
stings

benzoic acid
calorimetric
standard; used
in preserving
food, dyeing
fabric, curing
tobacco

butanoic acid
(butyric acid)
odor of rancid
butter; suspected
component of
monkey sex
attractant

octadecanoic acid
(stearic acid)
found in animal
fats; used in
making candles
and soap

Some lipid molecules with the ester


functional group.
cetyl palmitate
the most
common lipid in
whale blubber

lecithin
phospholipid found in all cell
membranes

tristearin
typical dietary fat used as
an energy store in
animals

Polymers
Long chain molecules made of small
repeating units
Can be made by addition reactions
(adding molecules) or condensation
(splitting something out and joining the
pieces.
Building polymers.

Crosslinking
Some polymers make bridges across
chains rather than just adding to chains.
These are cross-linked polymers.
Some cross-links are covalent bonds and
are permanent. Some links are made with
intermolecular forces and can be broken
more easily (like the alginate worms).

Making Worms
Sodium alginate

Calcium alginate the


calcium ions replace
the sodium ions and
form a bridge
between parts of the
alginate molecule

Making Slime

PVA (poly vinyl alcohol)

glue molecule

Borax molecule

PVA (poly vinyl alcohol)

glue molecule