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INVERSE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF

THE FRANCIS TURBINE


DIRECTOR DEVICE
SEMENESCU Danel*
DUMITRU Nicolae*
GHERCIOIU Jeni*
MALCIU Raluca*
*University of Craiova Romania

Abstract:
- the paper analyzes the dynamic behaviour of the
director device mechanism of a hydraulic turbine,
known also as the wicket gate or governing
mechanism of the turbine;
- it is applied an inverse dynamic analysis substituted
by experimental research and the finite element
method;
- for the dynamic analysis, the formalism Newton-Euler
is used, complemented by Lagrange multipliers
method; the forces acting in the kinematic pairs in
dynamic regime are identified, knowing the driving
force and the resistance force, whose variation laws
were experimentally determined.

INTRODUCTION
The closing-opening movement of the director device of a
hydraulic turbine is obtained using two servo-engines.
The closing tension is created by a levers system with
left-right thread and the system protection is provided
by the shear pins calculated to break and cut out the
blade in order to not overstress the mechanism.

It was developed the virtual model of the entire system as


presented in Fig. 2, respecting every constructive detail,
starting from each component part drawing and then
continuing with the subassemblies and the general
assembly.
Fig. 2 The virtual model of
the wicket gate mechanism

Fig. 3 The kinematic schema and


the attached reference systems

THE INVERSE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS


The kinematic configuration of the mechanism leads to a
system of equations having the following form:
(1)
q i , t 0, i 1,7 ,
where:
i
q rCT10 , i is the position vector of the link i;

The equations of motion defining the dynamic behavior of


the mobile system are:
i T
i 1,7 (2)
q
M i q i Qia 0
where:
- the matrix defining the inertial properties of the link i is:

M i mi , J C1

i 1,7
- the mass of the link i;
mi
- J - the moment of inertia about an axis passing
C!
through the mobile reference system region;
- Q a - the generalized forces matrix corresponding to the
i
link i.

The equations of motion in Newton-Euler formalism


complemented by the Lagrange multipliers method are:
(3)
Mq J T Q a
q

where: M
- the masses matrix;
q - the generalized coordinate vector;
J q- the Jacobian corresponding to the
generalized coordinate vector;
- Lagrange multipliers vector;
Q a- the generalized active forces matrix.
It is obtained a system of equations having the following
form:

x1 , y1 , z1 ,1 , x 2 , y 2 , z 2 , 2 , x3 , y 3 , z 3 , 3 , x 4 , y 4 , (4)
0

z 4 , 4 , x5 , y 5 , z 5 , 5 , x 6 , y 6 , z 6 , 6 , x 7 , y 7 , z 7 , 7

If this equation is derived with respect to time, the


following expression is obtained:
(5)

J q q

By differentiating the expression above with respect to


time, well have:
2
J q q J q q q q 2 2 J q q 0
(6)
t
2

J q q 2 J q q J q q q q 2
t

Using the notation:


2
a 2 J q q J q q q q 2
t
it is obtained:

J q q a

(7)
(8)
(9)

So, it is got the system of differential equations which


generates the dynamic analysis of the mechanism:

J q

J qT q Q a

0 a

(10)

The Lagrange multipliers are established by solving


the next system of equations:

Q
T 1
Jq

Mq

(11)

MATHEMATICAL MODELS
PROCESSING
For processing the mathematical models defining the
inverse dynamic analysis, it is used the Maple
programming environment. The input data are:
- The variation law of the generalized coordinate:
(12)
S 0.2078t 0.0063

- The variation law of the resistance force acting normal


to the blade:

Fr 12.464 t 1278.2755

(13)
cos 2.98122345 .5673899555 10 3 t .3057903923 10 6 t 2

- The variation law of the driving force:


Fm 564766.3 N

(14)

a)

b)

Fig. 4 - The time variation law of the constraint force components


from the joint D: a) R4x; b) R4y

The time variation laws of the constraint forces from


a kinematic pair are represented in Fig. 4.

KINEMATICAL MODELING AND


SIMULATION
Kinematical modeling needs
the following input data:
- The kinematic geometry of
the mechanism, whose
elements are 3D modeled;
- The piston stroke variation
law;
- The resistance force variation
law.
As a result of the input data, it
was developed the 3D model
of the wicket gate
mechanism using ADAMS
programming environment,
presented in Fig. 5.

In Fig. 6 it is presented the sequence of the 3D


simulation of the mechanism operation, for the
mid-position with open blades.

Using ADAMS programming environment, the time


variation laws for the kinematic parameters were
identified for each mechanism element as it is
showed in the following pictures:

Fig. 7 The kinematic parameters time variation laws for the


mechanism element no. 5

Fig. 8 The kinematic parameters time variation laws for the


mechanism element no. 4

FINITE ELEMENT MODELING


In order to perform the finite element modeling:
- there are experimentally identified the time
variation laws for the normal pressure acting on
the blade and for the driving link lift;
- the contact between the system components is
considered with friction and the modeling uses a
combination of hexahedron and tetrahedron
type elements;
- finite element modelling aims to analyze the
dynamic behaviour of the entire system while
45 seconds.

Fig. 9 The equivalent elastic displacements distribution for the


wicket gate blade

The variation laws for the displacements, strains


and stresses are identified for each mechanism
component, as it is showed for the case of the
wicket gate blade, respectively in Fig. 9, Fig. 10
and Fig. 11.

Fig. 10 The variation of von Mises


equivalent elastic strains for the
wicket gate blade

Fig. 11 The variation of von Mises


equivalent stress for the wicket gate
blade

Fig. 12 The time variation diagram of von Mises equivalent stress


[MPa] for the wicket gate blade (Nod 75123)

Fig. 13 The time variation diagram of the displacement u x [mm] for


the wicket gate blade (Nod 42923)

Fig. 14 The time variation diagram of the displacement u y [mm] for


the wicket gate blade (Nod 42923)

CONCLUSIONS
Using the finite element modeling, the stress,

displacements and strains variation laws for each


system component were obtained; it was found that
the maximum values are obtained mainly for the
shear bolts designed to protect the whole system to
the flow fluctuations that may occur.
The research has been focused mainly on the blade
of the wicket gate mechanism. The authors propose
its optimal analysis for a minimum overall
dimension, obtained for an imposed value of von
Mises stress.
Dynamic modeling of rigid bodies and deformable
bodies have been performed for designing a
mechanical system with an optimal dynamic
behavior in the case of excitations due to pressure
and piston stroke variations.