BIOLOGY

A Global Approach

TENTH EDITION

Global Edition

Campbell • Reece • Urry • Cain • Wasserman • Minorsky • Jackson

34
Vertebrates

Lecture Presentation by
Nicole Tunbridge and
Kathleen Fitzpatrick
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

For Bio 12 THQ, THR, and WFR, First Semester, 2016-2017
This set of slides is based mainly on Chapter 34 Vertebrates
of the 10th edition of Campbell Biology (2015).
The first slide, “”vertebrate vs. vertebrate,” cuts across
animal reproduction (Chapter 45), animal evolution, and
ecological interaction (Chapter 53), which are to be taken
up later.
A few slides (convergent evolution, orders of mammals)
are intended for linking to the topic on evolution (Chapter
21) which will be discussed in November.
Points of emphases are indicated by arrows or in red or blue color,
or in boldface.
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

August 30, 2016

vertebrate vs. vertebrate
fringe-lipped bat

Trachops cirrhosus

in Panama
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

ballooning túngara
Physalaemus pustulosus

one of the most successful groups of animals (See Chapter 32). © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . c) The animals called vertebrates get their name from vertebrae. the series of bones that make up the vertebral column (backbone).Half a Billion Years of Backbones a) Early in the Cambrian period. about 530 million years ago. an astonishing variety of invertebrate animals inhabited Earth’s oceans b) One type of animal gave rise to vertebrates.

Figure 34.1 This ancient organism was our ancestor? © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

a wide range of differences within the group © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . and mammals f) There are more than 57.d) One lineage of vertebrates colonized land 365 million years ago e) They gave rise to modern amphibians.000 species of vertebrates (mostly fishes). reptiles (including birds). including the largest organisms ever to live on Earth g) Vertebrates have great disparity.

the urochordates and cephalochordates © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .1: Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal. a) Chordates (phylum Chordata) are bilaterian animals that belong to the clade of animals known as Deuterostomia (together with echinoderms) b) Chordates comprise all vertebrates and two groups of invertebrates.Concept 34. hollow nerve cord.

mineralized skeleton Lobe-fins Actinistia Lungs or lung derivatives Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Amniotic egg Mammalia Milk © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Amniotes Limbs with digits Tetrapods Those in red are emphasized.Figure 34. Lobed fins Osteichthyans Actinopterygii Gnathostomes Chondrichthyes .2 Phylogeny of living chordates Echinodermata Chordates Cephalochordata ANCESTRAL DEUTEROSTOME Urochordata Notochord Common ancestor of chordates Vertebrates Myxini Petromyzontida Vertebrae Jaws.

Figure 34. © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes . mineralized skeleton Those in red are emphasized.2a ANCESTRAL Phylogeny of living chordates (part 1) DEUTEROSTOME Echinodermata Cephalochordata ANCESTRAL DEUTEROSTOME Urochordata Notochord Common ancestor of chordates Vertebrae Jaws.

2b Phylogeny of living chordates (part 2) Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Jaws. © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . mineralized skeleton Actinistia Lungs or lung derivatives Dipnoi Lobed fins Amphibia Limbs with digits Reptilia Mammalia Amniotic egg Milk The one in red is emphasized.Figure 34.

post-anal tail © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Derived Characters of Chordates a) All chordates share a set of derived characters. b) Some species have some of these traits only during embryonic development c) Four key characters of chordates i) Notochord ii) Dorsal. hollow nerve cord iii) Pharyngeal slits or clefts iv) Muscular.

Figure 34.3 Chordate characteristics Notochord Dorsal. hollow nerve cord muscle segments mouth anus Post-anal tail © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Pharyngeal slits or clefts .

Notochord a) The notochord is a longitudinal. flexible rod between the digestive tube and nerve cord b) It provides skeletal support throughout most of the length of a chordate c) In most vertebrates. and the adult retains only remnants of the embryonic notochord © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . jointed skeleton (vertebrae) develops. a more complex.

Dorsal. Hollow Nerve Cord a) The nerve cord of a chordate embryo develops from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal to the notochord b) The nerve cord develops into the central nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

the tetrapods) iii) Develop into parts of the ear. and neck in tetrapods © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Pharyngeal slits or clefts a) In most chordates. grooves in the pharynx called pharyngeal clefts develop into slits that open to the outside of the body (via the atriopore) b) Functions of pharyngeal slits i) Suspension-feeding structures in many invertebrate chordates ii) Gas exchange in vertebrates (except vertebrates with limbs. head.

post-anal tail a) Chordates have a tail posterior to the anus b) In many species. the tail is greatly reduced during embryonic development c) The tail contains skeletal elements and muscles d) It provides propelling force in many aquatic species © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Muscular.

Cephalochordata Lancelets a) Lancelets (Cephalochordata) are named for their bladelike shape b) They are marine suspension feeders that retain characteristics of the chordate body plan as adults © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

UN01 Cephalochordata mini-tree. p. 714 Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.

a cephalochordate (part 1: photo) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .4a 1 cm The lancelet Branchiostoma.Figure 34.

a cephalochordate (part 1) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .4 cirri Notochord mouth Dorsal.1 cm Figure 34. hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal slits atrium digestive tract atriopore segmental muscles anus Tail The lancelet Branchiostoma.

” shoot water through their excurrent siphon © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . which may last only a few minutes c) As an adult. a tunicate draws in water through an incurrent siphon.Urochordata Tunicates a) Tunicates (Urochordata) are more closely related to other chordates than are lancelets b) Tunicates most resemble chordates during their larval stage. or “sea squirts. tunicates. filtering food particles d) When attacked.

UN02 Urochordata mini-tree. 715 Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34. p.

a urochordate Water flow Notochord Incurrent siphon to mouth Excurrent siphon Dorsal. hollow nerve cord Tail Excurrent siphon Incurrent siphon Muscle segments Intestine Stomach Atrium Pharynx with slits (a) a tunicate larva © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Excurrent siphon Anus Intestine Esophagus Atrium Pharynx with numerous slits Tunic Stomach (b) An adult tunicate (sessile) (c) An adult tunicate .5 A tunicate.Figure 34.

Figure 34. hollow nerve cord Tail Excurrent siphon Incurrent siphon Muscle segments Intestine Stomach Atrium Pharynx with slits (a) A tunicate larva © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Excurrent siphon Anus Intestine Esophagus Stomach Atrium Pharynx with numerous slits Tunic (b) An adult tunicate .5a A tunicate. a urochordate Water flow Notochord Incurrent siphon to mouth Dorsal.

5b A tunicate.Figure 34. a urochordate Incurrent siphon to mouth Excurrent siphon: where water exits Atrium Pharynx with numerous slits Tunic (c) An adult tunicate © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

e) Tunicates are highly derived and have fewer Hox genes than other vertebrates © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

Early Chordate Evolution a) Ancestral chordates may have resembled lancelets b) The same Hox genes that organize the vertebrate brain are expressed in the lancelet’s simple nerve cord tip c) Sequencing of the tunicate genome indicates that i) Genes associated with the heart and thyroid are common to all chordates ii) Genes associated with transmission of nerve impulses are unique to vertebrates © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

Figure 34.6 Expression of developmental genes in lancelets and vertebrates BF1 Otx Hox3 Nerve cord of lancelet embryo BF1 Hox3 Otx Brain of vertebrate embryo (shown straightened) Forebrain © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Midbrain Hindbrain .

2: Vertebrates are chordates that have a backbone (vertebral column) a) A skeletal system and complex nervous system have allowed vertebrates efficiency at two essential tasks i) Capturing food ii) Evading predators © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Concept 34.

Derived Characters of Vertebrates a) Vertebrates have two or more sets of Hox genes. in the aquatic forms © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . lancelets and tunicates have only one cluster b) Vertebrates have the following derived characters i) vertebrae enclosing a spinal cord ii) an elaborate skull iii) fin rays.

cyclostomes.The cyclostomes Hagfishes and Lampreys a) Fossil evidence shows that the earliest vertebrates lacked jaws b) Only two lineages of jawless vertebrates. remain today: the hagfishes and the lampreys c) Members of these groups lack a backbone d) The presence of rudimentary vertebrae and the results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that both hagfishes and lampreys are vertebrates © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

e) Together. the gnathostomes © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . the hagfishes and lampreys form a clade of living jawless vertebrates. the cyclostomes f) Vertebrates with jaws make up a much larger clade.

and a flexible rod of cartilage derived from the notochord b) They have a small brain. reduced vertebrae.The cyclostomes Hagfishes (Myxini) a) Hagfishes (Myxini) are jawless vertebrates that have a cartilaginous skull. most are bottom-dwelling scavengers © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . and tooth-like formations c) Hagfishes are marine. eyes. ears.

Figure 34.7 a hagfish slime glands © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

The cyclostomes Lampreys (Petromyzontida) a)Lampreys (Petromyzontida) are parasites that feed by clamping their mouth onto a live fish b)They inhabit various marine and freshwater habitats c) They have cartilaginous segments surrounding the notochord and arching partly over the nerve cord © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

8 a sea lamprey © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.

Figure 34.8a a sea lamprey © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

Figure 34.8b a sea lamprey © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

and muscular segments. eyes. but no skull or ear organs © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Early Vertebrate Evolution a)Fossils from the Cambrian explosion document the transition to craniates b)The most primitive of the fossils are those of the 3-cm-long Haikouella c) Haikouella had a well-formed brain.

Figure 34.9 5 mm Segmented muscles Pharyngeal slits © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd fossil of an early chordate .

Figure 34.9a Fossil of an early chordate (part 1: photo) 5 mm © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

Concept 34. and mammals © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . including birds.5: Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg a) Amniotes are a group of tetrapods whose living members are the reptiles.

Derived Characters of Amniotes a) Amniotes are named for the major derived character of the clade. yolk sac. and allantois © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . the amniotic egg. chorion. which contains membranes that protect the embryo b) The extraembryonic membranes are the amnion.

25 The amniotic egg extraembryonic membranes allantois chorion amniotic cavity with amniotic fluid embryo yolk (nutrients) albumen shell amnion yolk sac extraembryonic membranes © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.

c) The amniotic egg was a key adaptation to life on land d) The amniotic eggs of most reptiles and some mammals have a shell e) Amniotes have other terrestrial adaptations. such as relatively impermeable skin and the ability to use the rib cage to ventilate the lungs © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

Birds a)Birds are archosaurs. but almost every feature of their reptilian anatomy has undergone modification in their adaptation to flight © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

small gonads.Derived Characters of Birds a) Many characters of birds are adaptations that facilitate flight b) The major adaptation is wings with keratin feathers c) Other adaptations include lack of a urinary bladder. females with only one ovary. and loss of teeth © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

or courtship display © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . a group of carnivorous dinosaurs b) Early feathers might have evolved for insulation.The Origin of Birds a) Birds probably descended from small theropods. camouflage.

feathered theropods had evolved into birds d) Archaeopteryx remains the oldest bird known © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .c) By 160 million years ago.

Figure 34.33 © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Hummingbird feeding while hovering .

class Mammalia.300 species © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Concept 34. are represented by more than 5.6: Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk a)Mammals.

and eutherians c) Mammals did not undergo a significant adaptive radiation until after the Cretaceous © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . the three living lineages of mammals emerged: monotremes.b) By the early Cretaceous. marsupials.

such as the bandicoot. convergent evolution has resulted in a diversity of marsupials that resemble the eutherians in other parts of the world (to be mentioned again in Chapter 21. see Fig. the marsupium opens to the rear of the mother’s body e) In Australia.d) In some species. 34.39) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

Convergent evolution of marsupials and eutherians (placental mammals) Marsupial mammals Eutherian mammals Figure 34.39 Plantigale Marsupial mole Sugar glider Wombat © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Deer mouse Mole Flying squirrel Woodchuck Tasmanian devil Wolverine Kangaroo Patagonian cavy .

Figure 34.39a Convergent evolution of marsupials and eutherians (placental mammals) Marsupial mammals Eutherian mammals Plantigale Deer mouse Marsupial mole Mole Sugar glider © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Flying squirrel .

Convergent evolution of marsupials and eutherians (placental mammals) Marsupial mammals Wombat Tasmanian devil Kangaroo © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Eutherian mammals Woodchuck Wolverine Patagonian cavy .

Eutherians (Placental Mammals) a)Compared with marsupials. joined to the mother by the placenta c) Molecular and morphological data give conflicting dates on the diversification of eutherians © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . eutherians have a more complex placenta b)Young eutherians complete their embryonic development within a uterus.

40a Exploring mammalian diversity (part 1b: phylogenetic tree) Monotremes Marsupials (5 species) (324 species) ANCESTRAL MAMMAL Monotremata Marsupialia Eutherians (5.010 species) Proboscidea Sirenia Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Xenarthra Rodentia Lagomorpha Primates Dermoptera Scandentia Carnivora Cetartiodactyla Perissodactyla Chiroptera Eulipotyphla Pholidota © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.

40aa Exploring mammalian diversity (part 1b: phylogenetic tree) Monotremes Marsupials (5 species) (324 species) ANCESTRAL MAMMAL Eutherians (5.Figure 34.010 species) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Monotremata Marsupialia Proboscidea Sirenia Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea .

40ab Exploring mammalian diversity (part 1b: phylogenetic tree) Eutherians (5.010 species) Proboscidea Sirenia Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Xenarthra Rodentia Lagomorpha Primates Dermoptera Scandentia Carnivora Cetartiodactyla Perissodactyla Chiroptera Eulipotyphla Pholidota © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.

rhinoceroses Coyote Cetartiodactyla Artiodactyls: sheep. chimpanzees. anteaters. herbivorous Jackrabbit Indicates mammalian orders of interest.Figure 34. walruses Cetaceans: whales. zebras. herbivorous Chiroptera Bats Frog-eating bat Bighorn sheep Pacific whitesided porpoise Opposable thumbs. cats. forward-facing eyes. continuously growing incisors worn down by gnawing. opossums. omnivorous Hooves with an odd number of toes on each foot. loose skin. young suck milk from fur of mother Platypuses. bears. for Chapter 21 Teeth consisting of many thin tubes cemented together. echidnas Orders and Examples Marsupialia Completes embryonic development in pouch on mother’s body Kangaroos. seals. thick. porcupines. herbivorous Manatees. hind legs longer than forelegs and adapted for running and jumping. carnivorous Perissodactyla Chisel-like. dolphins. gorillas. pointed canine teeth and molars for shearing. no nipples. tapirs. eats ants and termites Aardvarks African elephant Sirenia Main Characteristics Aquatic. carnivorous or herbivorous Eat mainly insects and other small invertebrates Star-nosed mole . complex. humans Golden lion tamarin Indian rhinoceros Hooves with an even number of toes on each foot. armadillos) Sloths. monkeys. otters. stumpy tail. porpoises © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Squirrels. herbivorous. muscular trunk. weasels. beavers. pigs. herbivorous Horses. broad skinfold that extends from elongated fingers to body and legs. some shrews Adapted for flight. carnivorous Eulipotyphla “Core insectivores”: some moles. armadillos Tamandua Lagomorpha Rabbits. herbivorous Red squirrel Lemurs. streamlined body. picas Carnivora Dogs. hares. multichambered stomach Hyraxes Manatee Xenarthra Rock hyrax Reduced teeth or no teeth. paddle-like forelimbs and no hind limbs. thick layer of insulating blubber. deer. wolves. cattle. rats. herbivorous (sloths) or carnivorous (anteaters.40b Orders and Examples Monotremata Main Characteristics Lay eggs. mice Primates Sharp. finlike forelimbs and no hind limbs. koalas Koala Echidna Proboscidea Long. giraffes Rodentia Chisel-like incisors. well-developed cerebral cortex. upper incisors elongated as tusks Elephants Tubulidentata Aardvark Aquatic. dugongs Hyracoidea Short legs.

opossums. for Chapter 21 Orders and Examples Main Characteristics Lay eggs.Figure 34.40ba Indicates mammalian orders of interest. young suck milk from fur of mother Monotremata Platypuses. echidnas Echidna Completes embryonic development in pouch on mother’s body Marsupialia Kangaroos. no nipples. koalas Koala © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

finlike forelimbs and no hind limbs. eats ants and termites Short legs. muscular trunk.40bb Be familiar with these orders for Chapter 21 Orders and Examples Proboscidea Elephants African elephant Sirenia Manatees. loose skin. multichambered stomach . thick. upper incisors elongated as tusks Aquatic. dugongs Manatee Tubulidentata Aardvarks Aardvark Hyracoidea Hyraxes Rock hyrax © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Main Characteristics Long. herbivorous Teeth consisting of many thin tubes cemented together. complex.Figure 34. herbivorous. stumpy tail.

omnivorous .40bc Orders and Examples Xenarthra Sloths. anteaters. hind legs longer than forelegs and adapted for running and jumping. mice red squirrel Primates lemurs. armadillos Tamandua Lagomorpha Rabbits.Figure 34. hares. beavers. gorillas. picas for Chapter 52 Jackrabbit Rodentia squirrels. well-developed cerebral cortex. rats. armadillos) Chisel-like incisors. forward-facing eyes. herbivorous What make us primates Opposable thumbs. herbivorous Chisel-like. humans golden lion tamarin © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Main Characteristics Reduced teeth or no teeth. continuously growing incisors worn down by gnawing. chimpanzees. herbivorous (sloths) or carnivorous (anteaters. porcupines. monkeys.

cattle. streamlined body. Coyote seals. pointed canine teeth and molars for shearing. herbivorous Aquatic. Bighorn sheep giraffes Cetaceans: whales. cats. weasels. for Chapter 21 Orders and Examples Carnivora Dogs. bears. deer. carnivorous .40bd Indicates orders of interest. carnivorous Hooves with an even number of toes on each foot. porpoises Pacific whitesided porpoise © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Main Characteristics Sharp. walruses Cetartiodactyla Artiodactyls: sheep. paddle-like forelimbs and no hind limbs. wolves. pigs. thick layer of insulating blubber.Figure 34. otters. dolphins.

herbivorous Indian rhinoceroses rhinoceros Chiroptera Bats frog-eating bat See first slide in this set Eulipotyphla “Core insectivores”: some moles.Figure 34. carnivorous or herbivorous Eat mainly insects and other small invertebrates . number of toes on tapirs.40be Orders and Examples Main Characteristics Perissodactyla Hooves with an odd Horses. some shrews © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Star-nosed mole Adapted for flight. broad skinfold that extends from elongated fingers to body and legs. each foot. zebras.

tarsiers.Primates a)The mammalian order Primates includes lemurs. monkeys. and apes b) Humans are members of the ape group © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

Derived characters of Primates a) Most primates have hands and feet adapted for grasping. and flat nails © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

providing depth perception iii) Complex social behavior and parental care iv) A fully opposable thumb (in monkeys and apes) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .b) Other derived characters of primates i) A large brain and short jaws ii) Forward-looking eyes close together on the face.

lorises. and bush babies ii) Tarsiers iii) Anthropoids (monkeys and apes) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Living Primates a) There are three main groups of living primates i) Lemurs.

41 Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi).Figure 34. a type of lemur © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

42 A phylogenetic tree of primates Lemurs. and bush babies ANCESTRAL PRIMATE Tarsiers Old World monkeys Gibbons Orangutans Gorillas Chimpanzees and bonobos Humans 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Time (millions of years ago) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd 0 Anthropoids New World monkeys . lorises.Figure 34.

b) The first monkeys evolved in the Old World (Africa and Asia) c) In the New World (South America). monkeys first appeared roughly 25 million years ago d) New World and Old World monkeys underwent separate adaptive radiations during their many millions of years of separation © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

Figure 34.43 (a) New World monkey: spider monkey (b) Old World monkey: macaque © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

chimpanzees. orangutans.e) The other group of anthropoids consists of primates informally called apes f) This group includes gibbons. and humans g) Apes diverged from Old World monkeys about 25–30 million years ago © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . gorillas. bonobos.

Figure 34.44 Nonhuman apes (a) Gibbon (b) Orangutan (c) Gorilla (d) Chimpanzees © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd (e) Bonobos .

44a Nonhuman ape (a) Gibbon © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.

000 years old.5 billion years Indeed. which is very young. © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . she is Young.Concept 34.7: Humans are mammals that have a large brain and bipedal locomotion a) The species Homo sapiens is about 200. considering that life has existed on Earth for at least 3.

the manufacture and use of complex tools iii) Reduced jawbones and jaw muscles iv) Shorter digestive tract © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . symbolic thought.Derived characters of humans What make you human? a) A number of characters distinguish humans from other apes i) Upright posture and bipedal locomotion ii) Larger brains capable of language. artistic expression.

b) The human and chimpanzee genomes are 99% identical ! c) Changes in regulatory genes can have large effects © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

The Earliest Hominins a) The study of human origins is known as paleoanthropology b) Hominins (formerly called hominids) are more closely related to humans than to chimpanzees c) Paleoanthropologists have discovered fossils of about 20 species of extinct hominins © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

0 Australopithecus africanus 1.5 7.5 Australopithecus afarensis 5.0 Ardipithecus ramidus 5.5 6.5 Millions of years ago 2.A timeline for selected hominin species Figure 34.0 © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Sahelanthropus tchadensis Homo rudolfensis Homo sapiens .45 Paranthropus robustus 0 Homo ergaster Paranthropus boisei 0.5 Homo neanderthalensis ? 1.0 pithecus anamensis 3.5 Australo3.0 Homo erectus Orrorin tugenensis 6.0 4.5 Australopithecus garhi Homo habilis 4.0 Kenyanthropus platyops 2.

Figure 34.45a

A timeline for selected hominin species (part 1: 3.5 mya to present)

Millions of years ago

0
0.5

Paranthropus
boisei

Paranthropus
robustus

Homo 
ergaster

?

Homo
neander­
thalensis

1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

Australopithecus
garhi
3.0
Australopithecus
3.5 africanus

Homo erectus

Homo 
habilis

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Homo 
rudolfensis

Homo
sapiens

Figure 34.45b

A timeline for selected hominin species (part 2: 7.0 mya to 3.5 mya)

Millions of years ago

Kenyanthropus
platyops
2.5 Australopithecus
3.0 anamensis
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Australopithecus
afarensis
Ardipithecus ramidus
Orrorin tugenensis
Sahelanthropus
tchadensis

d) The oldest fossil evidence of hominins dates back to
6.5 million years ago
e) Early hominins show evidence of small brains and
increasing bipedalism

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

4-million-year-old hominin.Figure 34.46 The skeleton of “Ardi. Ardipithecus ramidus © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .” a 4.

Correction: Hominin evolution included many branches or coexisting species. though only humans. survive today © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .f) Misconception: Early hominins were chimpanzees. Correction: Hominins and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor g) Misconception: Human evolution is like a ladder leading directly to Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens.

such as Australopithecus afarensis walked fully erect © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Australopiths a) Australopiths are a paraphyletic assemblage of hominins who lived between 4 and 2 million years ago b) Some species.

47 Evidence that hominins walked upright 3.5 million years ago (a) The Laetoli footprints © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd (b) An artist’s reconstruction of A.Figure 34. afarensis .

Figure 34.47a (a) The Laetoli footprints © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

47b (b) An artist’s reconstruction of A. afarensis © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.

c) “Robust” australopiths had sturdy skulls and powerful jaws d) “Gracile” australopiths were more slender and had lighter jaws © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

9 million years ago b) Bipedal walking was energy efficient in the arid environments inhabited by hominins at the time © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Bipedalism a) Hominins began to walk long distances on two legs about 1.

5 million years old b) Fossil evidence indicates tool use may have originated prior to the evolution of large brains © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . cut marks on animal bones. is 2.Tool Use a) The oldest evidence of tool use.

6 million years b) Stone tools have been found with H.Early Homo a) The earliest fossils placed in our genus Homo are those of Homo habilis. which means “handy man” © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .4 to 1. habilis. giving this species its name. ranging in age from about 2.

5 million years ago e) Homo ergaster shows a significant decrease in sexual dimorphism (a size difference between sexes) compared with its ancestors © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .c) Homo ergaster was the first fully bipedal. large-brained hominin d) The species existed between 1.9 and 1.

most paleoanthropologists now recognize these as separate species © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .f) Homo ergaster fossils were previously assigned to Homo erectus.

48 fossil of Homo ergaster © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.

8 million years ago h) It was the first hominin to leave Africa © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .g) Homo erectus originated in Africa by 1.

Homo neanderthalensis.000 to 28. they buried their dead.000 years ago b) They were thick-boned with a larger brain. and they made hunting tools c) Recent genetic analysis indicates that gene flow occurred between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . lived in Europe and the Near East from 350.Neanderthals a) Neanderthals.

5 4 3 2 1 0 Africans to Africans Non-Africans to Africans Non-Africans to Non-Africans Populations being compared in relation to Neanderthals © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.49 Inquiry: Did gene flow occur between Neanderthals and humans? Results Genetic similarity index (D) 7 6 These relatively high bars indicate that the Neanderthal genome was more similar to genomes of non-Africans than of Africans.

Why does it matter if Homo sapiens had sex with Neanderthals? © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

000 years ago b) All living humans are descended from these African ancestors (we’re Africans.) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Homo sapiens a) Homo sapiens appeared in Africa by 195.

000-year-old fossil of Homo sapiens © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .Figure 34.UN10 a 160.

000 years ago © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .c) The oldest fossils of Homo sapiens outside Africa date back about 115.000 years and are from the Middle East d) Humans first arrived in the New World sometime before 15.

18.000 year-old fossils were found in Indonesia. and a new small hominin was named Homo floresiensis.e) In 2004. © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

f) Homo sapiens were the first group to show evidence of symbolic and sophisticated thought g) In 2002. a 77.000-year-old artistic carving was found in South Africa © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .

a human hallmark © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .50 Art.Figure 34.

x) xi x Mean Brain Volume (cm3.5 1.400 0.000 Homo heidelbergensis −0.350 Homo sapiens © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd ( xi x ) yi y ( yi y ) .UN09a Skills exercise: determining the equation of a regression line (part 1) Hominin Species Mean age (millions of years.Figure 34.4 375 Homo habilis −1.200 Homo neanderthalensis −0.9 550 Homo ergaster −1.2 1.0 1.6 850 Homo erectus −1. y) Ardipithecus ramidus −4.1 1.4 325 Australopithecus afarensis −3.

most have moist skin that functions in gas exchange. ratfishes) Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Osteichthyans: bony skeleton Gnathostomes: hinged jaws. frogs. have head that includes a skull and brain. many live both in water (as larvae) and on land (as adults) One of two groups of living amniotes. crocodilians. hollow nerve cord. backbone of vertebrae Chordates: notochord. post-anal tail Clade Cephalochordata (lancelets) Ancient lineage of aquatic lobe-fins still surviving in Indian Ocean Freshwater lobe-fins with both lungs and gills. sister group of tetrapods Amphibia (salamanders. fused pelvic girdle Lobe-fins: muscular fins or limbs Actinistia (coelacanths) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Description Basal chordates. pouched marsupials (such as kangaroos. a derived trait formed by the reduction of an ancestral mineralized skeleton Aquatic gnathostomes. dorsal. key adaptations for life on land Mammalia (monotremes. platypus). eyes. have cartilaginous skeleton. birds) Have four limbs descended from modified fins. skates. and eutherians (placental mammals. opossums). and other sensory organs Petromyzontida (lampreys) Jawless aquatic vertebrates with reduced vertebrae.Figure 34. lizards and snakes. neck. marsupials. pharyngeal slits. marine suspension feeders that exhibit four key derived characters of chordates Chondrichthyes (sharks. larvae display the derived traits of chordates Myxini (hagfishes) Jawless marine vertebrates with reduced vertebrae. rays. such as rodents. four sets of Hox genes Vertebrates: Hox genes duplication. turtles. primates) . eutherians) Evolved from synapsid ancestors. include egg-laying monotremes (echidnas.UN11 Summary of key concepts: clade descriptions Urochordata (tunicates) Marine suspension feeders. have amniotic eggs and rib cage ventilation. typically feed by attaching to a live fish and ingesting its blood Aquatic gnathostomes. rib cage ventilation Dipnoi (lungfishes) Tetrapods: four limbs. have bony skeleton and maneuverable fins supported by rays Amniotes: amniotic egg. caecilians) Reptilia (tuataras.

have cartilaginous skeleton. marine suspension feeders that exhibit four key derived characters of chordates Urochordata (tunicates) Marine suspension feeders. rays. larvae display the derived traits of chordates Myxini (hagfishes) Jawless marine vertebrates with reduced vertebrae. skates. typically feed by attaching to a live fish and ingesting its blood Aquatic gnathostomes.Figure 34. ratfishes) Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfishes) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd Ancient lineage of aquatic lobe-fins still surviving in Indian Ocean Freshwater lobe-fins with both lungs and gills. sister group of tetrapods . a derived trait formed by the reduction of an ancestral mineralized skeleton Aquatic gnathostomes. have bony skeleton and maneuverable fins supported by rays Petromyzontida (lampreys) Chondrichthyes (sharks. eyes.UN11a Clade Description Cephalochordata (lancelets) Basal chordates. and other sensory organs Jawless aquatic vertebrates with reduced vertebrae. have head that includes a skull and brain.

key adaptations for life on land Mammalia (monotremes. lizards and snakes. caecilians) Have four limbs descended from modified fins. opossums).Figure 34. birds) One of two groups of living amniotes. platypus). frogs. have amniotic eggs and rib cage ventilation. primates) © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd . eutherians) Evolved from synapsid ancestors. and eutherians (placental mammals. many live both in water (as larvae) and on land (as adults) Reptilia (tuataras. include egg-laying monotremes (echidnas. marsupials. turtles. most have moist skin that functions in gas exchange.UN11b Summary of key concepts: clade descriptions Clade Description Amphibia (salamanders. crocodilians. pouched marsupials (such as kangaroos. such as rodents.

Stephen Hawking (1942- ), a British astrophysicist, has a
rare early-onset, slow-progressing form of amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as motor neurone disease in
the UK, that has gradually paralyzed him over the decades. He
now communicates using a single cheek muscle attached to
a speech-generating device.
His book A Brief History of Time appeared on the British
Sunday Times best-seller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

Stephen Hawking
© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

“We are just an advanced breed of
monkeys on a minor planet of a very
average star. But we can understand
the Universe. That makes us something
very special.”
Stephen Hawking

© 2015 Pearson Education Ltd

The End © 2015 Pearson Education Ltd .