BAMBOO

CONSTRUCTION

By deepanker

INTRODUCTION…
ø Bamboo has been in wide usage since ancient times
as a low-cost material for houses, bridges etc.
ø Recently started appearing in designer homes as
flooring, walling and paneling material
ø Is viewed as a material preferred only by the poor or
for temporary constructions
ø Unpopular in conventional construction due to low
durability, lack of structural design data, exclusion
from building codes etc.

Facts about bamboo
ø Bamboo is a perennial grass
and not a tree as is commonly
perceived.
ø 1450 species are found in
diverse climates across the
world, however, not all of
these
are
suitable
for
construction.
ø One of the fastest growing
plants on Earth. Its growth
rate ranges from 30cm to 1 m
in 24 hours.
ø The strongest part of a
bamboo stalk is its node,
where branching occurs.
ø Bamboo has also long been
used
as
scaffolding;
the
practice has been banned in

prepared and stored properly. it may be trained to grow in unconventional shapes. ø Flexibility . ø Earthquake-resistance It has a great capacity . when cultivated.Bamboo is an extremely strong natural fibre.advantages ø Strength . During its growth. harvested. on par with standard hardwoods.Bamboo is highly flexible. it may be bent and utilized in archways and other curved areas. After harvest.

Bamboo is extremely lightweight.As long-lasting as its wooden correlates. ø Cost-effective – Economical. ø Durability . Consequently. Cranes and other heavy machinery are rarely required. when properly harvested and maintained. Transporting cost is also much lesser. especially in areas where it is cultivated and is readily available. building with bamboo can be accomplished faster with simple tools than building with other materials.advantages ø Lightweight . .

How to protect bamboo… UNTREATED BAMBOO ø Untreated bamboo has the following life spans in different conditions > Exposure to soil and atmosphere = 1-3 years > Under cover = 4-7 years > Very favourable conditions = 10-15 years ø Natural durability also depends on the species of the bamboo .

How to protect bamboo… BORAX – BORIC ACID PRESERVATION TREATMENT Depending on the diameter of the bamboo. bamboo soaks in borax-boric acid solution (1:1.4) for 2 days to allow the mineral to penetrate all the nodes and Bamboo is removed and stacked vertically so the solution can drain and be reused. are used to drill into the centre of the bamboo culms throughout their whole At the preservation treatment pool. . different sized drill bits. attached to a long steel rod.

the bamboo poles are left to bask in the sun depending on the amount of The bamboo poles are left to dry slowly in a cool. dry place until they are used for Preservative solution is recharged after four cycles by adding water and the chemicals. Preservation treatment costs a minimum charge of INR 4.50 per .How to protect bamboo… BORAX – BORIC ACID PRESERVATION TREATMENT Next.

reinforcing bamboo absorbs water and expands ø The swelling of bamboo pushes the concrete away ø Then at the end of the curing period. ø One effective treatment is the application of a thin layer of epoxy to the bamboo surface followed by a .How to protect bamboo… ø During the casting and curing of concrete. the bamboo loses the moisture and shrinks back almost to its ø The swelling and shrinkage of bamboo in concrete original dimensions leaving create a serious limitation in the use of bamboo as a voids around itself substitute for steel in concrete.

.How to protect bamboo… NEEM SEED OIL TREATMENT ø Oil obtained from neem seeds can be used to improve water resistance and dimensional stability of bamboo culms particularly at high oil-treatment temperature. ø Bamboo samples soaked in hot neem seed oil at 60°C for 4 hours had better water resistance and dimensional stability than samples soaked in oil at room temperature for 24 hours.

Bamboo foundations COMPOSITE BAMBOO-CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Single Post Footing Strip Footing .

The foundation is further strengthened by bamboo reinforced concrete. Kerala where bamboo piles have been used as foundation . . ø The friction provided by the constructiongrade bamboo increases its loadbearing capacity. thus increasing the bearing capacity of soil. ø Treated split bamboo piles 8m long and 80 to 90mm in diameter were filled with coconut coir strands wrapped with jute.Bamboo foundations BAMBOO PILES ø Bamboo compacts soft soil. A sustainable house in Thiruvananthapuram.

. After installation of the piles @2m c/c by drop hammer.5m surcharge of sandy material.Bamboo foundations BAMBOO PILES ø The sections were then tied with galvanised iron wire. the area is covered with a 2.

Bamboo WALLS WOVEN BAMBOO WALL WHOLE BAMBOO CULMS VERTICAL HALVED CULMS BAJAREQUE WATTLE AND DAUB .

RESISTANCE TO EARTHQUAKES ø High residual strength to absorb shocks and impacts. ø Flexure coupled with its very low mass.6 magnitude earthquake .8 on the Richter scale ø A bamboo house in Bhutan that withstood an earthquake that occurred at Sikkim (epicenter) measuring 6. ø Prototype house built with bamboo sheet roofing and bamboo-reinforced concrete walls withstood a simulated earthquake measuring 7.9 in September 2011 ø 30 houses at the epicenter of a 7.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Property Value Density 0.9 gm/cc Compressive Strength 53 – 100 MPa Tensile Strength 111 – 219 MPa Bending Strength 86 – 229 MPa Bending Elasticity 6882 – 20890 MPa .5 – 0.

bamboo column AND BEAM Bamboo Reinforced Column Bamboo Beams .

foot in INR Concr ete .Comparative analysis 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Rate of construction per sq.

Comparative analysis Energy consumption during construction 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 .

There is little or no data containing specifications of bamboo. their structural efficiency is low.Limitations and drawbacks Few considerations currently limit the use of bamboo as a universally applicable construction material ø Jointing techniques .Although many traditional joint types exist. ø Flammability Bamboo structures are not fireresistant. is relatively high. Considerable research has been directed at the development of more effective methods. . and the cost of treatment. where available. ø Lack of design guidance and codification The engineering design of bamboo structures has not yet been fully addressed.

Species of bamboos (preferable for construction) in india • • • • • • • • • • Bambusa nutans Dendrocalamus brandisii Oxytenanthera stocksii Melocanna bambusoides Dendrocalamus strictus Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Dendrocalamus giganteus Bambusa bambos Bambusa polymorpha Bambusa balcooa  .

Mallo. Badia bansa ORISSA . basketry and craft. Makla TRIPURA Habitat & distribution Grows best at altitudes of between 500-1500 m. loosely clumped. . Uses House construction. and well-drained sandy loam to clayey loam soils. Kali. Mukia ASSAM . Commonly found and cultivated in the North East. Orissa and Bengal. Beng. Mahi bans SIKKIM: LEPCHA . Thrives on moist hill slopes and flat uplands. Malla UTTAR PRADESH . Culm The culm is up to 20 m tall.Bambusa nutans • • • • • Local names Bidhuli. Sporadic flowering is also observed. Flowering Flowers gregariously at an interval of 35 years. straight and smooth. dark green.

Flowering Gregarious and sporadic. and smooth. Uses House construction and basketry. Wanan MANIPUR Habitat & distribution Primarily found in tropical forests. Introduced into Coorg (Karnataka). ashy grey to greenish-grey. and to make han .Dendrocalamus brandisii • • • • • Local names Bulka BENGAL . Culm The culm is up to 20 m tall. Found in the Jiribam area of Manipur.

. Mes MAHARASHTRA . Culm The culm  up to 10 m tall. Flowering Sporadic. Uses Suited for construction purposes. yellowish green.Oxytenanthera stocksii • • • • • Local names Konda. ladders and supports. Chivari. Uyi. straight at the top. Confined and endemic to southern peninsular India. Mula KERALA . Oor-shema KARNATAKA . erect. Also used for making furniture. Habitat & distribution Typically grows from sea level to altitudes of 800 m.

Moubi MANIPUR . Watrai MEGHALAYA: GARO HILLS . ASSAM: BARAK VALLEY . TRIPURA. Tarai ASSAM: BRAHMAPUTRA VALLEY . Arten ASSAM: KARBI-ANGLONG . Flowering cycle is about 40-44years. . It grows best on low hills and in undulating countryside. • Uses Used in the construction of houses and for making woven products.Melocanna bambusoides • Local names Mautak MIZORAM . • Flowering Gregarious.eastern part of the country.Turiah NAGALAND • Habitat & distribution Found chiefly in the north . An important source for paper pulp. • Culm Culms arise singly from the rhizome at a distance. Muli BENGAL.

Kalmungil TAMIL NADU Habitat & distribution Found normally at altitudes up to 1000 m. Sandapa veduru ANDHRA PRADESH . Narvel MAHARASHTRA . Kanka kara. Kiri bidiru GUJARAT . Kurathimula. Salia ORISSA . Flowering Flowering intervals are long (25-45 years). Uses . Nakur bans. open deciduous forests. it is the most common bamboo in India. Karal BENGAL . in dry.Dendrocalamus strictus • • • • • Local names Lathi bans NORTH AND CENTRAL INDIA . Widely distributed. Culm The culm is up to 10 m tall. erect but slightly arched at the top.  Kallanmula. Korna KERALA .

Fonay ASSAM: KARBI-ANGLONG  . Pao SIKKIM: LEPCHA . Pecha WEST BENGAL .Dendrocalamus hamiltonii • • • • • Local names Kako ASSAM . up to 30 m tall. Culm The culm is large. commonly and periodically Uses Used as edible shoot. Unep MANIPUR  . Phulrua MIZORAM   Habitat & distribution Occurs in fine-textured soil in semi-evergreen forests. dull green. Grows abundantly and well in the North East and Himachal Pradesh. Flowering The flowering cycle is 30-40 years. Wanoke MEGHALAYA: GARO HILLS . for roofing and construction purposes. . Tama WEST BENGAL: DARJEELING .

with a waxy appearance Flowering Sporadic. Worra ASSAM . up to 30 m tall. West Bengal and Bihar. Uses Used for construction purposes and to make boat masts. Bhalo bans SIKKIM Habitat & distribution Grows well in humid tropical and sub-tropical regions. .Maroobob MANIPUR.Dendrocalamus giganteus • • • • • Local names Maipo ARUNACHAL PRADESH: KHAMTI . The flowering cycle is 40 years. dull green. Culm The culm is large. in the North East.

to make panel products and handicrafts.Bambusa bambos • Local names Kotoha ASSAM . and is common in Central and South India. . Found almost throughout India. cylindrical. Illi.Behor bans BENGAL . strong and hollow. Pattill KERALA . Mulla veduru ANDHRA PRADESH • Habitat & distribution Attains the best growth in moist deciduous forests up to an altitude of 1000 metres. dark green. Mula. Prefers rich and moist soil. • Flowering Gregarious. Bongu veduru. Saneibo MANIPUR Mungil TAMIL NADU . Nal bans PUNJAB . and for thatching and roofing. and thrives near perennial rivers and valleys. Flowers at long intervals 40-60 years and the clump/plant dies after flowering. • Culm The culm is up to 30 metres tall. Kanta bans ORISSA . erect. • Uses It is used as raw material for pulp and paper.

Betwa ASSAM. Flowering cycle is 55-60 years. Bari TRIPURA Habitat & distribution Prefers deep.as edible shoot. Commonly found in Arunachal Pradesh.Bambusa polymorpha • • • • • Local names Jama betwa. well-drained loam and riverine alluvial soil. in woven form for handicrafts.  It is also . and for house construction. WEST BENGAL . Uses It is a bamboo with many uses . fertile. Also occurs in other parts of the North East. Meghalaya and Tripura. Culm The culm is up to 25 m tall. Narangi bans MADHYA PRADESH . light green or white grey to greyish-green. Flowering Gregarious as well as sporadic.

Bambusa balcooa • Local names Bhaluka ASSAM . It is a good bamboo for scaffolding and ladders. Boro bans NORTH BENGAL . Wamnah. Beru MEGHALAYA: GARO HILLS . dark green and thick-walled. A common homestead bamboo in North East India and West Bengal. . Balku bans WEST BENGAL . • Uses The most common use of this sturdy and strong bamboo is in house construction. Also occurs in Bihar. Jharkhand and Uttaranchal. The clump/plant dies after flowering without setting any seed. • Flowering Gregarious. Prefers heavy textured soil with good drainage. The flowering cycle is 35-45 years. Barak TRIPURA • Habitat & distribution Occurs at altitudes of up to 600 m. • Culm The culm is up to 30 m tall.