CHAPTER I

CLASSIFICATION OF
ORGANISMS:
TAXONOMY

KINGDOMS OF LIFE
• Five-kingdom system: in 1969 Robert H. Wittaker

Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

MONERA

PROTISTA

PLANTAE

Earliest
organisms

FUNGI

ANIMALIA

Monera Kingdom: Bacteria- Prokaryotic Organism

Ribosomes
Flagella

Cytoplasm
Chromosome
Cell wall Cell membrane

• Flagellum (flagella) Locomotive appendage Flagellum Propeller-like rotary movement Plasma membrane Cell wall Rotary movements of each flagellum .

• Pillus (pilli) Short and thin appendage Help bacteria stick to each other and to surfaces Pili .

Cyanobacteria PHOTOSYNTHESIS : CO2 + H2O + Sun Energy Sugars + O 2 .

Typical Eukaryotic Cell Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin Centrioles Lysosome Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Gogli apparatus Peroxisome Mitochondrion Cytoskeletal element Cell membrane (Plasma membrane) .

Plant-like Protists Diatoms Euglena Volvox .

Animal-like Protists flagella Paramecium Giardia Pseudophodia:false feet Amoeba Cillia .

FUNGI KINGDOM Yeast Bread Mold Fruit Mold Cultivated Mushroom Poisonous Mushroom .

Typical Plant Cell Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin Central vacuole Cell wall Chloroplast Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Peroxisome Mitochondrion Cytoskeletal element Cell membrane (Plasma membrane) .

Non-Vascular Plants Red Algae Brown Algae .

Multicellular Green Algae Unicellular Green Algae .Non-Vascular PlantsCont.

Mosses Liverworts .Non-Vascular PlantsCont.

Vascular Plants Ferns .

Vascular PlantsCont. Gymnosperms Red Pine Lebanon Cedar Blue Spruce Ginkgo biloba .

Vascular PlantsCont. DICOTYLEDONS Bean Oak Tree Pea Potatoe Rose Strawberry .

Vascular PlantsCont. Wheat MONOCOTYLEDONS Palm Corn Lilly Rice .

Dicots .Monocots vs.

Radial vs Bilateral Symetry Posterior end Anterior end Plane of symmetry Planes of symmetry .

Marine Coelenterates Sea anemones Coral Jelly fish .

Marine Coelenterates Sea Anemone Sponge .

Freshwater Coelenterates Hydra .

Parasitic Flatworms Tapeworms .

Parasitic Flatworms .

Planarians Free-living (non-parasitic) Flatworms .

Planarians .

Oyster MOLLUSCS Snail Shell Squid Octopus No Shell .

ANNELIDS (SEGMENTED WORMS) Earthworm Leech (Parasitic) .

ARTHROPODS Black widow Scorpions Spiders Crabs Tarantula Lobsters Cray fish .

ARTHROPODS: INSECTS .

Sea star .Echinoderms d.

Echinoderms .

CHORDATES:Vertebrates:Fish .

CHORDATES:Vertebrates:Amphibians Salamenders Frogs .

CHORDATES:Vertebrates:Reptiles Lizards Alligators Snakes Turtles .

CHORDATES:Vertebrates:Birds .

CHORDATES:Vertebrates:Mammals .