Ethylene Production

Naphtha Steam Cracking Process

5 bar pressure is maintained in the tubes by the naphtha feed pumps. Temperature in the furnace continuously maintained between 950 to 1000oC by the series of burners controlling.  By a heat exchanger. Its interior contains burners placed along the sidewalls or at the bottom of the furnace.  The preheat naphtha is mixed with steam and passes to the convective section.Process Description The Process of Naphtha Cracking: Steam Pyrolysis Technology  A cracking furnace having a separate convection section for preheating and a radiant section is used. fresh feedstock (Naphtha) is preheated with cracked products stream that comes out from the furnace. Its temperature is raised to 300oC temperature and pass to the radiation section of the furnace for further increasing to 800 oC (This is the condition where naphtha is cracked into simple compounds) .

)  Steam is added to dilute the feedstock at ratio of 0. .6 kg/kg HC to prevent the coke formation at the cracking zone. Products from C2 to C4 group are formed during cracking along with some quantity of BTX and ethyl benzene. Hydrogen and fuel oil.  High temperature product gas is cooled by removing the latent heat of water in steam generators that produce HP steam with 10 to 14Mpa.Process Description (cont.  Transferline heat exchangers operate with high thermal efficiency during cooling the product gas.

) Ethylene Purification And By-products Separation And Recycle  Oil quenching mechanism is used to cool the furnace effluent gas and the recover heat is used to produce low-pressure steam in the plant utility. Gas oil and fuel oil are obtained when the gas is passed to the primary fractionators. C5 and C6 components takes place by partial fractionation and liquefaction.  The cracked products are passed through coolers and compressors and compressed to 30 atm and 30 oC and separation of C3. C4.Process Description (cont.  The volatile components from the primary fractionators are cooled and compressed to 5 to 6Mpa.  This can be done in four stages: . Heavy hydrocarbons (above C 3) are liquefied and separated through separators.

. ethane and slight amount of acetylene (1%). Third stage  Dry gas constituting CH4 and H2 is separated from ethane /ethylene mixture this mixture is used as a refrigerant. Second stage  The uncondensed gas is subjected to severe conditions. hydrogen. and SO2etc are removed in acid gas removing unit.  up to +30°c and 20 atmosphere pressure. H2S. ethylene. by caustic wash not shown in process flow sheet. .)  This can be done in four stages: First stage  Cooling the whole mass of gas to 30°C under 35 atm pressure to liquefy C 4 and heavier constituents. to convert acetylene and propadiene to ethylene and propane respectively.  After the treatment the left out in the gas are methane. Hydrogen gas is purified and part of it is sent to hydrogenation units. Acidic constituents like CO.Process Description (cont. where by propane condenses leaving ethane and ethylene in gaseous form. i. Hydrogen is separated initially than the gas is liquefied. CO 2.e.

 Then it is send to ethylene splitter for separation of ethylene. This stage is not shown in the process flowsheet. . The gases are sent to acid gas removal unit. Fourth stage   Ethane and ethylene are liquefied and fractionated Fifth stage  The heavy bottoms of first stage unit are processed for C 3 and heavy ends.Process Description (cont.  Tail gas is removed and then traces of acetylene are converted into ethylene by hydrogenation. Demethaniser for methane removal and hydrogen purification unit.)  Tail gas obtained from demethaniser is abundant in methane and used in fuel system.

Process Flow Diagram .