VBB 4043



Recap from previous lecture

From PLOC, first and most
important duty of a Project Manager
is PLANNING the project assigned
to him/her, which can be;

Tactical - planning to ensure pre-set
managerial objectives for the project
will be achieved

Operational - detailed planning of work
schedule and standards to meet the
project objectives

Outline of topic:
Planning and Scheduling

Definitions of planning and scheduling
Planning types
Pre-construction planning
Bar Chart construction
Network Diagrams
Critical Path


Definitions  Planning and scheduling are NOT the same thing..  What is planning?  Establishment of a framework on paper for measuring. controlling and reporting a project wrt time. resources (incl. money) and methods 4 .

Definitions (cont.)  Scheduling is…  Process of converting an outline plan of a project into a time-based graphic representation. based on the available resources and time constraints 5 .

when to call tender. when to mobilize on site.Planning vs scheduling  Planning is to answer :      What is going to be done How Where By whom When (starting time and finishing time) (Ref. when to complete the Chancellery building. etc) 6 . UTP campus project)  Scheduling is to answer:   When is it going to be done On detailed a level e. when to prepare design.g.

Importance  Why need planning and scheduling in projects? (or What do you think will happen if a project is not properly planned or scheduled?) REASONS CHART  Planning stage has 50 to 80 % influence on cost Refer to life-cycle and Cost-Influence vs project stage chart  7 .

Types of Planning  Pre-project planning   Pre-design planning   Performed by an owner as part of the feasibility study of a project i. before committing on a project Performed by an owner (or consultant on behalf of owner) after a project has been committed to obtain an optimum design for the project Pre-tender planning  Performed by a construction contractor to prepare for the submission of a tender or bid 8 .e.

Types of Planning (cont.)  Pre-construction (or post-tender) planning      Performed by the Contractor Begins after a project has been awarded but before any construction work is executed Often extends into the construction stage During-construction planning     Performed by the Contractor Occurs after the project has been started and continues throughout the duration of the project construction Purpose is to address issues that could only be identified or discovered after construction has started 9 .

A.Pre-Construction Planning  Must begin the moment the notice to proceed with the project is received (project “L. and before everything begins.”)  Must begin before the first worker arrives.  The benefits of pre-construction planning: Increased productivity. before the first piece of material is ordered. 10 . increased profitability and fewer accidents.

11 . including:          Project manager Superintendent Officer (S.)* Owner’s representative Estimator Scheduler (if separate) Subcontractors Suppliers Finance clerk Others… *A person of the highest authority who administers the project contract including instructing changes. certifying work done and certifying progress payments to the contractor.O.Pre-Construction Planning: Who Should Be Involved?  Anyone that has a role in the construction process.

Pre-Construction Planning: What Tasks to Perform  Pre-Construction Planning Strategy: (these events may occur concurrently) 1. 3. 2. 6. 4. 5. 7. Establish the project team /organization Review project scope of work Identify potential risks (unknown info) Review the cost estimate Conduct value engineering Develop the schedule Prepare a cost plan Determine labor requirements 12 . 8.

Pre-Construction Planning: What Tasks to Perform (cont. 11. 12. 13.) 10. Select and order materials and equipment Select subcontractors Develop a quality assurance plan Prepare a safety program 13 .

During-Construction Planning  Starts about two months after execution and lasts throughout the project duration  Purpose:    To address issues that could only be identified after construction has started eg. Discovery of a rock mass during excavation Types of during-construction planning:    Detailed (daily) work instructions for each crew Contingency planning to adjust for an unexpected condition Short-interval scheduling to identify construction activities for the next few weeks 14 . In roads construction. plan for traffic diversion plan can only be done after the project has started To address issues of the unexpected condition eg.

delays) To provide a communication tool between consultants. owner and suppliers Contractual obligation 15 .Scheduling  Introduction: Why We Need a Schedule?      To establish a sequence of work and timeframe for performance of construction activities To determine when to order and deliver materials and equipment To show the impact of productivity-related problems on project completion (weather. strikes. contractors.

5. 16 . 6. allocation and leveling 1. Identify the critical path 8.General procedure in scheduling Establish the project objectives to achieve Determine work activities and sequencing Determine the activity durations Determine the logical relationships Prepare what-if scenarios Draw the logic network (for network methods only) 7. 4. 2. Monitor and control the schedule 10. 3. Implement the schedule 9. Implement resource scheduling.

Types of Schedules  Bar Chart    Often called Gantt Chart Developed by Henry Gantt Network Diagrams   Arrow Diagram Precedence Diagram 17 .

Bar Chart  Activities are represented by bars in proportion to their duration  An activity is a task whose performance contributes to the completion of the overall project eg Excavate Foundation  Easy to construct and understand  Other information may be added to the basic bar chart    Cost of activity (“cost-loaded schedule”) Labor required for each activity (“man-loaded”) Materials req. for each activity (“resource-loaded”) 18 .

Establish the sequence of work 3.Steps to Construct a Bar Chart  3 basic steps to construct a bar chart: 1. Break the job down into activities 2. Estimate activity duration 19 .

Level 2 or 3 components normally sufficient to create a practical bar chart 20 .1. Break the Job Down Into Activities (or Tasks)  List important activities related to the project but restrict the number for simplicity of the schedule  Can use Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for the project (usually prepared during project costing/estimation)  If based on WBS.

design is top down 21 . Establish Sequence Of Work  Sequencing needs to take into account the relationships between activities  Basis of sequencing: 1. construction process is bottom up.2. Process or physical logic One activity cannot start until another is partially or totally complete -eg cannot install steel girder of bridge until the abutments have been erected: example bar -eg cannot assemble car engine if car skeleton or body is not completed N.B.

there must be at least 3 rows of the columns already constructed to ensure stability 3. Resource / economic constraint   Due to limited resources. Establish Sequence Of Work (cont. one activity cannot start until certain amount of another activity has been completed. two activities may not be able to use a resource at same time eg a crane cannot be used for both pouring concrete to floor slab and at same time erecting steel sections) Example of sequencing 22 .2. eg before erecting precast beams on columns (pillars).) 2. Structural requirement  Due to structural stability requirement.

Data    in the form of construction rates of the activities in the form of actual duration of part or the whole structure From experience /expert judgment  Data also as in the above forms. 23 .3. Estimate Activity Duration  How to estimate duration:  From standard estimating method using a known construction (or production) rate  From calculation using the Labor Hour (or Man Hour) Productivity equation (“price book” method)  From company’s historic records.

)  Standard estimating method  Duration = Total quantity of work gang construction rate in hours = Total quantity of work in days gang construct. Estimate Activity Duration (cont. rate x working hours Eg Total volume of concrete to pour = 200 m3 gang construction rate = 5m3/hr Calculate duration of concreting activity in days if the company practices an 8-hr working day. Ans: Duration = 200 = 5 days 5x8 24 .3.

Find the duration in hours and in days of installing 16 tonne rebar assuming a 4-person gang and an 8-hour work day Ans. Estimate Activity Duration (cont.  Total labour hours = 20 x 16 = 320  Duration (hours) = 320 = 80 hours 4 Duration (days) = 80 = 10 days 8 25 . Total labor-hours of an activity = (Labor-hours per unit of work) x (Amount of work) Duration (hours) = Total labour hours / gang size Eg.3. Productivity rate for rebar installation in a building project is 20 labor-hours/ tonne.)  Man or Labor-Hour Productivity Method  Duration is calculated based on a given total labor hours and productivity rate .

Using a Bar Chart for Planning and Monitoring Progress (L03) No  Assume the progress of the activity as a direct linear function of the elapsed time  Example: Road construction Acitivity Duration Quantity Week Ending (Days) Amount Units 3/30 4/6 4/13 4/20 4/27 5/4 5/11 5/18 5/25 6/1 6/8 6/15 6/22 6/24 7/6 7/13 7/20 7/27 8/3 1 Move-in 5 - 2 Clear & Grub 20 SF 3 Earth moving 60 CY 4 Site Grading 45 SF 5 Subbase 45 6 Base 25 7 Paving 25 5 /1 R e p o r t in g d a te M e m o r ia l d a y h o lid a y W o r k p la n n e d W o rk c o m p le t e d 26 .

27 .  Include quantity and the estimated daily production rate for controlling items of work. duration.  Include start. and completion date for each activity.Bar Chart Progress Schedule  Bar chart progress schedule should satisfy the following minimum requirements:  Include activities that describe essential features of the work.

nodes and arrows (or links) between these nodes Activities are represented by two nodes and one link eg Critical Path Method (CPM) and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Activities on nodes (precedence diagram)   Activities represented by nodes and links represent the relationship eg Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) 28 .Network Diagrams  Definition   Activities on arrows (arrow diagram)    A network consists of two basic elements.

Cut and fill Place base Pave Site clearance Excavate and form culvert Construct culvert Activity-on-arrow Diagram Cut and fill Place base Site Clearance Pave Excavate and form culvert Construct culvert Activity-on-node (Precedence Diagram) 29 .

Float: allowance of time between end of a precedent activity and starting time of a following activity  Each critical activity must be carried out immediately after a precedent activity   Eg. example 30 . etc. It has zero float. Likely critical activities in building construction: piling works. Must be carried out exactly on time. construct floor beams. construct columns. Critical Path from bar chart. construct pile caps.Critical path   Longest series of all the activities and also sets the project completion time. otherwise causes project delay. Any activity along the Critical Path is called a Critical Activity.