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INTRODUCTION

Material quantities, as they pass through

processing operations, can be described by

material balances. Such balances are statements

on the conservation of mass.

Energy quantities can be described by energy

balances .

If there is no accumulation, what goes into a

process must come out.

Energy balances are used in the examination

of the various stages of a process, over the

whole process /over the total production

system from the raw material to the finished

product.

Material Balance

The first material balances Design stages of

a new process.

The next material balances Improved during

pilot plant experiments when the process is

being tested, checked out when the plant is

commissioned.

Then refined and maintained as a control

instrument as production continues.

When any changes occur in the process, the

material balances need to be determined

again. Material balances are fundamental to

the control of processing, particularly in the

control of yields of the products.

BASIC PRINCIPLE

If

nature is seen as a whole it may be

represented diagrammatically as a

box.

The mass and energy going into the

box must balance with the mass

and energy coming out.

Products out

mP1mP2mP3

Raw

Materials in

mR1mR2mR3

Waste products

Energy in

Heat, Work,

Chemical, Electrical

ER1ER2ER3

Unit

Operation

mW1mW2mW3

Stored Materials

mS1mS2mS3

Energy in

products

Stored Energy

ES1ES2ES3

EP1EP2EP3

Energy in

Waste

EW1EW2EW3

Energy losses

To surroundings

EL1EL2EL3

MASS BALANCE

is called a mass or a material balance.

Materials.

mR = mP + mW + mS

(where (sigma) denotes the sum of all terms).

Materials

mP = mP1 + mP2 + mP3

= Total Products.

Products

mS = mS1 + mS2 + mS3

If

occurring in the plant, the law of

conservation of mass will apply also

to each component, so that for

component A:

exit materials + mA stored in plant.

if the total quantity of sugar going into the plant

is not equalled by the total of the purified sugar

and the sugar in the waste liquors, then there is

something wrong. Sugar is either being burned

(chemically changed) or accumulating in the

plant or else it is going unnoticed down the

drain somewhere. In this case:

where mAU is the unknown loss and needs to be

identified. So the material balance is now:

Stored Products + Losses

where Losses are the unidentified materials.

ENERGY BALANCE

Just as mass is conserved, so is energy conserved

in processing operations. The energy coming

into a unit operation can be balanced with the

energy coming out and the energy stored.

Energy In = Energy Out + Energy Stored

ER = EP + EW + EL + ES

where

ER = ER1 + ER2 + ER3 + = Total Energy Entering

Ep = EP1 + EP2 + EP3 + = Total Energy Leaving

with Products

with Waste Materials

EL = EL1 + EL2 + EL3 + .= Total Energy Lost

to Surroundings

ES = ES1 + ES2 + ES3 + = Total Energy stored

forms of energy can be interconverted, for example

mechanical energy to heat energy, but overall the

quantities must balance.

SANKEY DIAGRAM

represent an entire input and output

energy flow in any energy equipment or

system such as boiler generation, fired

heaters, furnaces after carrying out energy

balance calculation. This diagram

represents visually various outputs and

losses so that energy managers can focus

on finding improvements in a prioritized

manner.

MATERIAL BALANCES

The first step is to look at the three basic categories:

Then the materials in each category have to be

considered whether they are to be treated as a whole,

a gross mass balance, or whether various constituents

should be treated separately and if so what

constituents.

A major factor in industry is, of course, the value of the

materials and so expensive raw materials are more

likely to be considered than cheaper ones, and

products than waste materials.

basis

batch system or

mass per hour in a continuous process.

chosen such as mass, or concentrations which can be

by weight or can be molar if reactions are important.

Material

dry solids, or mass of particular component.

Example: Constituent Balance

Skim milk is prepared by the removal of some of the fat from

whole milk. This skim milk is found to contain 90.5% water,

3.5% protein, 5.1% carbohydrate, 0.1% fat and 0.8% ash. If

the original milk contained 4.5% fat, calculate its

composition assuming that fat only was removed to make

the skim milk and that there are no losses in processing.

This contains, therefore, 0.1 kg of fat. Let the fat

which was removed from it to make skim milk be x kg.

Total original fat

=(x + 0.1)kg

Total original mass = (100 + x) kg

and as it is known that the original fat content was

4.5% so

(x + 0.1) / (100 + x) = 0.045

x + 0.1 = 0.045(100 + x)

x = 4.6 kg

So the composition of the whole milk is then fat =

4.5%, water = 90.5/104.6 = 86.5 %, protein =

3.5/104.6 = 3.3 %, carbohydrate= 5.1/104.6 = 4.9%

and ash = 0.8%

CONCENTRATIONS

Concentrations can be expressed in many ways: weight/ weight

(w/w), weight/volume (w/v), molar concentration (M), mole

fraction.

The weight/weight concentration is the weight of the solute

divided by the total weight of the solution and this is the

fractional form of the percentage composition by weight.

The weight volume concentration is the weight of solute in

the total volume of the solution.

The molar concentration is the number of molecular weights

of the solute expressed in kg in 1 m3 of the solution.

The mole fraction is the ratio of the number of moles of the

solute to the total number of moles of all species present in the

solution.

EXAMPLE

A solution of common salt in water is prepared by

adding 20 kg of salt to 100 kg of water, to make a

liquid of density 1323 kg/m3. Calculate the

concentration of salt in this solution as a (a)

weight fraction, (b) weight/volume fraction, (c)

mole fraction, (d) molal concentration.

(a) Weight fraction:

20 / (100 + 20) = 0.167

% weight / weight = 16.7%

(b) Weight/volume:

A density of 1323kg/m3 means that lm3 of solution

weighs 1323kg, but 1323kg of salt solution

contains

1 m3 solution contains 220.5 kg salt.

Weight/volume fraction = 220.5 / 1000 = 0.2205

And so weight / volume = 22.1%

c) Moles of water = 100 / 18 = 5.56

Moles of salt = 20 / 58.5 = 0.34

Mole fraction of salt = 0.34 / (5.56 + 0.34) = 0.058

d) The molar concentration (M) is 220.5/58.5 = 3.77

moles in m3

methods can be used but in solid mixtures

the concentrations are normally expressed

as simple weight fractions.

measured in weight concentrations per unit

volume, or as partial pressures. These can

be related through the gas laws. Using the

gas law in the form:

pV = nRT

number of moles, T the absolute

temperature, and R the gas constant which

is equal to 0.08206 m3 atm / mole K, the

molar concentration of a gas is then

n / V = p/RT

and the weight concentration is then Nm / V

where M is the molecular weight of the gas.

The SI unit of pressure is the N/m2 called the

Pascal (Pa). As this is of inconvenient size

for many purposes, standard atmospheres

(atm) are often used as pressure units, the

conversion being 1 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa, or

very nearly 1 atm = 100 kPa.

EXAMPLE

If air consists of 77% by weight of nitrogen and 23%

by weight of oxygen calculate:

(a) the mean molecular weight of air,

(b) the mole fraction of oxygen,

(c) the concentration of oxygen in mole/m 3 and kg/m3

if the total pressure is 1.5 atmospheres and the

temperature is 25 oC.

(a)

77/28 moles of N2 and 23/32 moles of O2

Total number of moles = 2.75 + 0.72 = 3.47 moles.

So mean molecular weight of air = 100 / 3.47 = 28.8

Mean molecular weight of air = 28.8

0.72) = 0.72 / 3.47 = 0.21

Mole fraction of oxygen = 0.21

(c) In the gas equation, where n is the number

of moles present: the value of R is 0.08206

m3 atm/mole K and at a temperature of 25 oC

= 25 + 273 = 298 K, and where V= 1 m 3

pV = nRT

and so, 1.5 x 1 = n x 0.08206 x 298

n = 0.061 mole/m3

weight of air = n x mean molecular weight

= 0.061 x 28.8

= 1.76 kg / m3

Concentration of oxygen = 0.4kg/m3

or 0.4 / 32 = 0.013 mole / m3

Continuous Processes

consideration and the balances are related to unit time.

Considering a continuous centrifuge separating whole

milk into skim milk and cream, if the material holdup in the

centrifuge is constant both in mass and in composition,

then the quantities of the components entering and leaving

in the different streams in unit time are constant and a

mass balance can be written on this basis.

Such an analysis assumes that the process is in a steady

state, that is flows and quantities held up in vessels do not

change with time.

EXAMPLE

If 35,000kg of whole milk containing 4% fat

is to be separated in a 6 hour period into

skim milk with 0.45% fat and cream with

45% fat, what are the flow rates of the two

output streams from a continuous centrifuge

which accomplishes this separation?

Basis 1 hour's flow of whole milk

Mass

Total

in

Fat = 5833 x 0.04 = 233 kg.

And so Water plus solids-not-fat = 5600 kg.

Mass

out

its total fat content is 0.45x. The

mass of skim milk is (5833 - x) and its

total fat content is 0.0045 (5833 x)

Material

balance on fat:

5833 x 0.04 = 0.0045(5833 - x) +

0.45x. and so x = 465 kg.

So that the flow of cream is 465 kg / hr and

skim milk (5833 465) = 5368 kg/hr

HEAT BALANCES

The most common important energy form

is heat energy and the conservation of this

can

be

illustrated

by

considering

operations such as heating and drying.

In these, enthalpy (total heat) is conserved

and as with the mass balances so enthalpy

balances can be written round the various

items of equipment. or process stages, or

round the whole plant, and it is assumed

that no appreciable heat is converted to

other forms of energy such as work.

A

m3/hr of natural gas with a calorific

value of 800 kJ/mole. If the

throughput of the dryer is 60 kg of

wet cloth per hour, drying it from 55%

moisture to 10% moisture, estimate

the overall thermal efficiency of the

dryer taking into account the latent

heat of evaporation only.

60 x 0.55 kg water = 33 kg moisture

and 60 x (1-0.55) = 27 kg bone dry cloth.

As the final product contains 10% moisture, the

moisture in the product is 27/9 = 3 kg

And so Moisture removed / hr = 33 - 3 =

Latent heat of evaporation = 2257 kJ/K

Heat necessary to supply =30 x 2257=

kJ/hr

Assuming the natural gas to be at

temperature and pressure at which

occupies 22.4 litres

30 kg/hr

6.8 x 104

standard

1 mole

1000)/22.4 = 179 moles/hr

800 = 14.3 x 104 kJ/hr

Approximate thermal efficiency of dryer =

heat needed / heat used

= 6.8 x 104 / 14.3 x 104 = 48%

SUMMARY

quantitatively knowing the amounts of materials

entering into a process, and the nature of the

process.

Content of inputs = content of products +

wastes/losses + changes in stored materials.

established.

energy (energy of pressure or position), kinetic

energy, work energy, chemical energy. It is the

sum over all of these that is conserved.

useful in many processing situations.

FLOW CHART

Flow charts are

schematic

representation of

the production

process, involving

various input

resources,

conversion steps

and output and

recycle streams.

Input

Process

Step-1

Waste

Input

Process

Step-2

Waste

Output

Process Flow Chart

materials, water, steam, energy (electricity, etc);

from

raw

material

to

finished

product.

Intermediates and any other byproduct should

also be represented. The operating parameters

such

as

temperature,

pressure,

%

concentration,flow

rate,

etc.

should

be

represented. In case of batch process the total

cycle time should be included.

chemicals, energy etc. .

produced in the plant.

atomisation

Steam

HP Dosing

(Phosphate)

3 Bar

180o C

Fur.Oil

Tank

4.5 KL

Heater/3.5 kw

Filter units

BOILER

30 TPH

12 Bar

FD

Fan

12 Bar/190o C

Air

160o C

66m

170o C

75 KW

35640m3

540mm WC

Chimney

LP dosing

(Oxytreat)

Condensate return

125o C

Deareator

10m 3

Condensate

tank 25m3

8.95 KW

36 m3/hr

1.5m

DM water tank

250 m3

2.8 KW

48.1 m3/hr

21.5m

Economiser

Blowdown

tank

4.5 KW

48.1 m3/hr

21.5m

Drain

GENERATION

DISTRIBUTION

UTILISATION/

END USE APPLICATION

Extraction

Filter Press

110 kw

850 m3/hr.

Activated

Alumina Drier

Instrumentation

& Controls

Fermenter

530 Nm3/hr for Filter Press

150 minutes/day

Air Receiver

7 Bars

110 kw

850 m3/hr.

225 Nm3/hr

110 kw

850 m3/hr.

Compressor - 3 No.

Two stage, double

acting, reciprocating,

water cooled nonlubricated, heavy duty

Boiler

Atomisation

Vent

Chilled

Water Heat

Exchanger

Receiver

5 Bars

N2 Plant

630 Nm3/hr

Moisture Air

Drain

150 Nm3/hrN2

N2 Receiver

Westfalia

(Extraction)

Centrifuge

(Extraction)

Energy

Balance

For a complex production stream, it is better to

balance.

While splitting up the total system, choose,

simple discrete sub-systems. The process flow

diagram could be useful here.

Choose the material and energy balance

envelope such that, the number of streams

entering and leaving, is the smallest possible.

Always choose recycle streams (material and

energy) within the envelope.

The measurement units may include, time factor

or production linkages.

batch operations.

It is important to include start-up and cleaning

operation consumptions (of material and energy

resources (M&E).

Calculate the gas volumes at standard conditions.

In case of shutdown losses, averaging over long

periods may be necessary.

Highlight losses and emissions (M&E) at part load

operations if prevalent.

For each stream, where applicable, indicate

energy quality (pressure, temperature, enthalpy,

Kcal/hr, KW, Amps, Volts etc.).

While preparing M&E balances, precision of

analytical data, flow and energy measurements

have to be accurate especially in case of short

time span references.

dentify the problem to be studied and define a

boundary that encloses the entire system or subsystem to be analysed. Entering and leaving mass

and energy flows must be measured at the boundary.

Select an appropriate test period

Carry out the measurements & Calculate the energy

and mass flow.

If the balances are outside acceptable limits, then

repeat the measurements.

The energy release or use in endothermic and

exothermic processes should be taken into

consideration in the energy balance.

Boiler

The Figure illustrates the heat balance and different

losses73.8occurring

while generating steam.

% Heat in Steam

12.7 %

8.1 %

100 %

Fuel

STEAM

BOILER

1.7 %

0.3 %

2.4 %

1.0 %

Heat loss due to moisture in air

Heat loss due to unburnts in residue

Heat loss due to radiation and

other unaccounted losses

Calculation

from the inlet gas stream so that outlet gas stream

meets the required emission standards in cement,

fertilizer and other chemical industries.

During an air pollution monitoring study, the inlet gas

stream to a bag filter is 1,69,920 m3/hr and the dust

loading is 4577 mg/m3. The outlet gas stream from the

bag filter is 1,85,040 m3/hr and the dust loading is 57

mg/m3.

What is the maximum quantity of ash that will have to

be removed per hour from the bag filter hopper based

on these test results?

Inlet gas stream dust = outlet gas stream dust + Hopper Ash

hour

Inlet dust quantity = 169920 (m3/hr) x 4577

(mg/m3) x 1/1000000 (kg/mg) = 777.7 kg/hr

Outlet dust quantity = 185040 (m3/hr) x 57

(mg/m3) x 1/1000000 (kg/mg) = 10.6 kg/hr

2. Calculate the quantity of ash that will have to be

removed from the hopper per hour

Hopper ash

= Inlet gas dust quantity Outlet gas

dust quantity

= 777.7 kg/hr 10.6 kg/hr

= 767.1 kg/hr

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