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COMPACT RANGES

Microwave antennas need


-U.P.W for illumination
-far field distances in the setup
CATR (Compact Antenna Test Range)
a collimating device that generates
UPW in a short distance compared to 2D 2
/

Two types
1.Curved metal reflectors
2.Dielectric lens
Principle
Equality of path length to generate plane
wave
Fig.1

Draw backs
-aperture blockage
-spill over of feed to test antenna
-diffraction from edges of reflector
-polarization problems
Solution
-using off-set feed
-long focal length

CATR performance
to produce perfect UPW a CATR should
have
-ideal parabolic curvature
-infinite size
-point source at focus
A practical CATR produces approximate
UPW
Figures of merit are
-phase errors
-amplitude tapper
- amplitude & phase ripples

Phase errors : due to diffraction and


curvature
Amplitude tapering:
- feed pattern
- space attenuation (1/r2 )
Amplitude & phase ripples:
- due to diffraction
Fig.2

Diffraction : to reduce
1.Serrated edges
Fig.3

2.Rolled edges
Fig.4

CATR designs:
Four configurations
1. Single paraboloid:
Fig:5(copy fig.1)

- no blocking
-more depolarization
-No spill over

2.Dual paraboloid:
Fig.6

-spill over exist


-low cross polarization

3.Dual shaped reflector:


Fig.7

-similar to cassegrain
-high illumination efficiency
-low spill over
-increased power density

4.Single parabolic reflector system:


Fig.8

Vertical plane -parabolic


Horizontal plane flat
Small antennas direct far field pattern
Large antennas NF/FF transform for FF
pattern

NEAR FIELD RANGES(NF/FF Methods)

Measurements in the near field


are transformed to obtain FF
measurements using analytical
methods.
Methods:
Near field data:
A scanning probe over
1.planar surface or
2.cylindrical or
3.spherical

E-field (magn. & phase) on the surface


Model expansion methods
FF
pattern
FF Transformation complexity
Planar(high G antennas) < cylindrical < spherical(low
G antennas)

Planar scanning:
data acquired on rect. Plane
Max. sample spacing: x = y = /2

Fig.9

- Mathematical simplicity
- Less complex transformation(FFT
algorithms)
- Suitable for horn, reflector, planar
arrays
- Resulting FF pattern is over limited
angular span(draw back)

Cylindrical scanning:
Fig.10

- Produce complete azimutal pattern


- Moderate FF transformation complexity
- Maximum angular & vertical sample spacing is
=/2(+a) ; z = /2
where , a= radius of smallest cylinder
enclosing

Fig.11- cylindrical scan

Spherical scanning:
Fig.12

- Complete FF pattern can be obtained


- Maximum sampling spacing is
= /2(+a) ; = /2(+a)
Where, a = radius of smallest sphere

Fig. 13-spherical scanning

RADIATION PATTERN
Patterns measured on surface of
sphere of
large radius
Fig.14

Field pattern : E (, ) (r is fixed)


- three dimensional fig
- instead 2-D patterns used
- E-plane & H-plane
- vertical pattern( = 900 )
- azimuthal pattern( =
900 )
Amplitude pattern:
Total amplitude = vector sum of two
orthogonal
components

Fig.15- Amplitude pattern

Phase pattern:
How the phase of the field varies
over the surface of fixed radius
Fig. 16-far field phase measurement

Gain Measurement
Absolute Gain measurement
- based on Friis transmission formula
(i).Two- antenna method:

Friis transmission formula in


logarithmic decibel form can be
written as
(Got )dB + (Gor )dB
= (20 log(4R/) + 10
log(Pr/Pt) )

If the transmitter & Receiver are


identical
i.e (Got )dB = (Gor )dB then

(ii)Three antenna method


If the two antennas are not identical
Then three antennas a, b, c can used
a-b combination
(Ga )dB +(Gb )dB = 20 log(4R/) + 10
log(Prb/Pta)
a-c comination
(Ga )dB +(Gc )dB = 20 log(4R/) + 10
log(Prc/Pta)

b-c combination
(Gb )dB +(Gc )dB = 20 log(4R/) + 10
log(Prc/Ptb)

IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT
The i/p Impedance (driving point
point impedance) of an antenna
Is its self impedance (when radiating
into unbounded medium, no coupling)
Is a function of self impedance & Mutual
impedance between it and other
sources/obstacles

To ensure max.power transfer


between Antenna & Transmission line
Conjugate match is required
If No Conjugate matching, then power
lost is given by

Where
Zant = i/p impedance of the antenna
Zcct = impedance of the Tr.Line/ Circuit
connected to the antenna

The degree of impedance


mismatch
is a function of Zant and

Char.impedance, Zc of the tr.line


determines the amount of power
reflected at the i/p terminals of

At the i/p terminals of antenna

Now to measure the i/p Impedance


VSWR is measured to compute the
magnitude of Reflection coefficient,
To find the phase , of of the reflection
coefficient, voltage minimum on the
tr.line is identified from the antenna
terminals and then,

and

After measuring the reflection


coefficient (both magnitude &
phase), the i/p impedance can be
calculated using

VSWR ( VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO )


MEASUREMENT

Used to determine the degree of mismatch


between the source and load when the value
VSWR 1.
Can be measured by using a slotted line. Direct
Method Measurement is used for VSWR values
upto about 10. Its value can be read directly
using a standing wave detector .
The measurement consists simply of adjusting
attenuator to give an adequate reading, making
sure that the frequency is correct and then using
the dc voltmeter to measure the detector output
at a maximum on the slotted section and then at
the nearest minimum.

The ratio of the voltage maximum to the minimum is VSWR

VSWR = Vmax / Vmin

ISWR = Imax / Imin


= k (V

2
)
/ k (V
max

2
)
min

(V

max

2
=
VSWR
VSWR = ( I / I ) = ISWR
max

min

/ V

2
)
min

Methods used depends on the value of VSWR


whether it is high or low. If the load is not exactly
matched to the line, standing wave pattern is
produced.
Reflections can be measured in terms of voltage,
current or power. Measurement using voltage is
preffered because it is simplicity.
When reflection occured, the incident and the
reflected waves will reinforce each other in some
places, and in others they will tend to cancel each
other out.

VSWR MEASUREMENT SETUP


MICROWAV
E SOURCE

POWER
METER
ISOLAT
OR

ATTENU
ATOR

WAVE
METER

DIRECTI
ONAL
COUPLE
R

VSWR
INDICAT
OR

SLOTTED
LINE

TUNE
R

TERMINAT
OR

FUNCTION OF EACH BLOCK


MICROWAVE SOURCE generates microwave
source in X-band (8 12 GHz);
e.g klystron, magnetron or TWT
ISOLATOR /CIRCULATOR - Allow wave to travel
through in one direction while being
attenuated in the other direction or it is use to
eliminate the unwanted generator frequency
pulling (changing the frequency of the
generator) due to system mismatch or
discontinuity. (to prevent reflected energy from
reaching the source)

ATTENUATOR - Control the amount of


power level in a fixed amount, variable
amount or in a series of fixed steps from the
from the microwave source to the
wavemeter.

WAVEMETER - Used to select / measure


resonant cavity frequencies by having a
plunger move in and out of the cavity thus
causes the the cavity to resonate at different
frequencies.
DIRECTIONAL COUPLER - Samples part of
the power travelling through the main
waveguide and allows part of its energy to
feed to a secondary output port. Ideally it is
used to separate the incident and reflected
wave in a transmission line.
SLOTTED LINE - Used to determine the field

VSWR INDICATOR - Denotes the value of


VSWR measured by the slotted line.
TUNER

- Allows only the desired frequency to

appear at the output. Any harmonic frequencies


that appear at the output are reduced to an
acceptable level.
TERMINATOR

- May range from a simple

resistive termination to some sort of deep-space


antenna array, active repeater or similar devices.
3 special cases of transmission line i.e short
circuit, open circuit, match impedance.

DOUBLE MINIMUM METHOD MEASUREMENT ( VSWR > 10)

Double Minimum method is usually employed


for VSWR values greater than about 10.
E2MAX

2E2MIN

SWR PATTERN

E2MIN

/2

d/2

distance along the line

The detector output (proportional to field strength


squared) is plotted against position. The probe is
moved aling the line to find the minimum value of
signal.
It is then moved either side to determine 2
positions at which twice as much detector signal is
obtained. The distance d between these two
positions then gives the VSWR according to the
formula :
S =

1 + 1/Sin2(d/)

(OR)
The value of VSWR is calculated by
VSWR = g/ 2(d2- d1)
Where g = guided wave length
d2- d1 = seperation between
successive
minima

S-PARAMETERS : Introduction
A two port network is shown in the figure below.

From network theory a two port network can be


described by a number of parameters such as H, Y ,
ABCD parameters.

If the frequencies are in microwave region these parameters


cannot be used due to the following reasons.

The figure below shows the S parameters of two port network.

Scattering Parameters
Consider a circuit or device inserted into a
T-Line as shown in the Figure. We can
refer to this circuit or device as a two-port
network.
The behavior of the network can be
completely characterized by its scattering
parameters
(S-parameters),
or
its
scattering matrix, [S].
Scattering matrices are frequently used to
characterize multiport networks, especially
at high frequencies. They are used to
represent microwave devices, such as
amplifiers and circulators, and are easily
related to concepts of gain, loss and
reflection.

Scattering matrix

S11
S


S 21

S12

S 22

Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)


The scattering parameters represent ratios of voltage waves entering and
leaving the ports (If the same characteristic impedance, Zo, at all ports in
the network are the same).

In matrix form this is written

Where,

Properties:
1)
The two-port network is reciprocal if
Reciprocity

the transmission characteristics are


the same in both directions (i.e. S21
= S12).
It is a property of passive circuits
(circuits with no active devices or
ferrites) that they form reciprocal
networks.
A network is reciprocal if it is equal
to
its
transpose.
Stated
mathematically, for a reciprocal
network
Condition for Reciprocity:

S12= S21

2) Lossless
Networks
A
lossless network does

not contain any


resistive elements and there is no
attenuation of the signal. No real power is
delivered to the network. Consequently, for
any passive lossless network, what goes in
must come out!
In terms of scattering parameters, a
network is lossless if

S S
t

1
U , where [U] is the unitary matrix
[U ]

.
0
1

For a 2-port network, the product of the transpose matrix and the
complex conjugate matrix yields

S S

S S
S S

S11 S 21

S S* S
12 11
22

If the network is
reciprocal and
lossless

*
21

*
11 12

12

S 21S 22*

S 22

S11 S 21 1
2

1 0

0 1
S11 S12* S 21S 22* 0