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You are on page 1of 49

-U.P.W for illumination

-far field distances in the setup

CATR (Compact Antenna Test Range)

a collimating device that generates

UPW in a short distance compared to 2D 2

/

Two types

1.Curved metal reflectors

2.Dielectric lens

Principle

Equality of path length to generate plane

wave

Fig.1

Draw backs

-aperture blockage

-spill over of feed to test antenna

-diffraction from edges of reflector

-polarization problems

Solution

-using off-set feed

-long focal length

CATR performance

to produce perfect UPW a CATR should

have

-ideal parabolic curvature

-infinite size

-point source at focus

A practical CATR produces approximate

UPW

Figures of merit are

-phase errors

-amplitude tapper

- amplitude & phase ripples

curvature

Amplitude tapering:

- feed pattern

- space attenuation (1/r2 )

Amplitude & phase ripples:

- due to diffraction

Fig.2

Diffraction : to reduce

1.Serrated edges

Fig.3

2.Rolled edges

Fig.4

CATR designs:

Four configurations

1. Single paraboloid:

Fig:5(copy fig.1)

- no blocking

-more depolarization

-No spill over

2.Dual paraboloid:

Fig.6

-low cross polarization

Fig.7

-similar to cassegrain

-high illumination efficiency

-low spill over

-increased power density

Fig.8

Horizontal plane flat

Small antennas direct far field pattern

Large antennas NF/FF transform for FF

pattern

are transformed to obtain FF

measurements using analytical

methods.

Methods:

Near field data:

A scanning probe over

1.planar surface or

2.cylindrical or

3.spherical

Model expansion methods

FF

pattern

FF Transformation complexity

Planar(high G antennas) < cylindrical < spherical(low

G antennas)

Planar scanning:

data acquired on rect. Plane

Max. sample spacing: x = y = /2

Fig.9

- Mathematical simplicity

- Less complex transformation(FFT

algorithms)

- Suitable for horn, reflector, planar

arrays

- Resulting FF pattern is over limited

angular span(draw back)

Cylindrical scanning:

Fig.10

- Moderate FF transformation complexity

- Maximum angular & vertical sample spacing is

=/2(+a) ; z = /2

where , a= radius of smallest cylinder

enclosing

Spherical scanning:

Fig.12

- Maximum sampling spacing is

= /2(+a) ; = /2(+a)

Where, a = radius of smallest sphere

RADIATION PATTERN

Patterns measured on surface of

sphere of

large radius

Fig.14

- three dimensional fig

- instead 2-D patterns used

- E-plane & H-plane

- vertical pattern( = 900 )

- azimuthal pattern( =

900 )

Amplitude pattern:

Total amplitude = vector sum of two

orthogonal

components

Phase pattern:

How the phase of the field varies

over the surface of fixed radius

Fig. 16-far field phase measurement

Gain Measurement

Absolute Gain measurement

- based on Friis transmission formula

(i).Two- antenna method:

logarithmic decibel form can be

written as

(Got )dB + (Gor )dB

= (20 log(4R/) + 10

log(Pr/Pt) )

identical

i.e (Got )dB = (Gor )dB then

If the two antennas are not identical

Then three antennas a, b, c can used

a-b combination

(Ga )dB +(Gb )dB = 20 log(4R/) + 10

log(Prb/Pta)

a-c comination

(Ga )dB +(Gc )dB = 20 log(4R/) + 10

log(Prc/Pta)

b-c combination

(Gb )dB +(Gc )dB = 20 log(4R/) + 10

log(Prc/Ptb)

IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT

The i/p Impedance (driving point

point impedance) of an antenna

Is its self impedance (when radiating

into unbounded medium, no coupling)

Is a function of self impedance & Mutual

impedance between it and other

sources/obstacles

between Antenna & Transmission line

Conjugate match is required

If No Conjugate matching, then power

lost is given by

Where

Zant = i/p impedance of the antenna

Zcct = impedance of the Tr.Line/ Circuit

connected to the antenna

mismatch

is a function of Zant and

determines the amount of power

reflected at the i/p terminals of

VSWR is measured to compute the

magnitude of Reflection coefficient,

To find the phase , of of the reflection

coefficient, voltage minimum on the

tr.line is identified from the antenna

terminals and then,

and

coefficient (both magnitude &

phase), the i/p impedance can be

calculated using

MEASUREMENT

between the source and load when the value

VSWR 1.

Can be measured by using a slotted line. Direct

Method Measurement is used for VSWR values

upto about 10. Its value can be read directly

using a standing wave detector .

The measurement consists simply of adjusting

attenuator to give an adequate reading, making

sure that the frequency is correct and then using

the dc voltmeter to measure the detector output

at a maximum on the slotted section and then at

the nearest minimum.

= k (V

2

)

/ k (V

max

2

)

min

(V

max

2

=

VSWR

VSWR = ( I / I ) = ISWR

max

min

/ V

2

)

min

whether it is high or low. If the load is not exactly

matched to the line, standing wave pattern is

produced.

Reflections can be measured in terms of voltage,

current or power. Measurement using voltage is

preffered because it is simplicity.

When reflection occured, the incident and the

reflected waves will reinforce each other in some

places, and in others they will tend to cancel each

other out.

MICROWAV

E SOURCE

POWER

METER

ISOLAT

OR

ATTENU

ATOR

WAVE

METER

DIRECTI

ONAL

COUPLE

R

VSWR

INDICAT

OR

SLOTTED

LINE

TUNE

R

TERMINAT

OR

MICROWAVE SOURCE generates microwave

source in X-band (8 12 GHz);

e.g klystron, magnetron or TWT

ISOLATOR /CIRCULATOR - Allow wave to travel

through in one direction while being

attenuated in the other direction or it is use to

eliminate the unwanted generator frequency

pulling (changing the frequency of the

generator) due to system mismatch or

discontinuity. (to prevent reflected energy from

reaching the source)

power level in a fixed amount, variable

amount or in a series of fixed steps from the

from the microwave source to the

wavemeter.

resonant cavity frequencies by having a

plunger move in and out of the cavity thus

causes the the cavity to resonate at different

frequencies.

DIRECTIONAL COUPLER - Samples part of

the power travelling through the main

waveguide and allows part of its energy to

feed to a secondary output port. Ideally it is

used to separate the incident and reflected

wave in a transmission line.

SLOTTED LINE - Used to determine the field

VSWR measured by the slotted line.

TUNER

that appear at the output are reduced to an

acceptable level.

TERMINATOR

antenna array, active repeater or similar devices.

3 special cases of transmission line i.e short

circuit, open circuit, match impedance.

for VSWR values greater than about 10.

E2MAX

2E2MIN

SWR PATTERN

E2MIN

/2

d/2

squared) is plotted against position. The probe is

moved aling the line to find the minimum value of

signal.

It is then moved either side to determine 2

positions at which twice as much detector signal is

obtained. The distance d between these two

positions then gives the VSWR according to the

formula :

S =

1 + 1/Sin2(d/)

(OR)

The value of VSWR is calculated by

VSWR = g/ 2(d2- d1)

Where g = guided wave length

d2- d1 = seperation between

successive

minima

S-PARAMETERS : Introduction

A two port network is shown in the figure below.

described by a number of parameters such as H, Y ,

ABCD parameters.

cannot be used due to the following reasons.

Scattering Parameters

Consider a circuit or device inserted into a

T-Line as shown in the Figure. We can

refer to this circuit or device as a two-port

network.

The behavior of the network can be

completely characterized by its scattering

parameters

(S-parameters),

or

its

scattering matrix, [S].

Scattering matrices are frequently used to

characterize multiport networks, especially

at high frequencies. They are used to

represent microwave devices, such as

amplifiers and circulators, and are easily

related to concepts of gain, loss and

reflection.

Scattering matrix

S11

S

S 21

S12

S 22

The scattering parameters represent ratios of voltage waves entering and

leaving the ports (If the same characteristic impedance, Zo, at all ports in

the network are the same).

Where,

Properties:

1)

The two-port network is reciprocal if

Reciprocity

the same in both directions (i.e. S21

= S12).

It is a property of passive circuits

(circuits with no active devices or

ferrites) that they form reciprocal

networks.

A network is reciprocal if it is equal

to

its

transpose.

Stated

mathematically, for a reciprocal

network

Condition for Reciprocity:

S12= S21

2) Lossless

Networks

A

lossless network does

resistive elements and there is no

attenuation of the signal. No real power is

delivered to the network. Consequently, for

any passive lossless network, what goes in

must come out!

In terms of scattering parameters, a

network is lossless if

S S

t

1

U , where [U] is the unitary matrix

[U ]

.

0

1

For a 2-port network, the product of the transpose matrix and the

complex conjugate matrix yields

S S

S S

S S

S11 S 21

S S* S

12 11

22

If the network is

reciprocal and

lossless

*

21

*

11 12

12

S 21S 22*

S 22

S11 S 21 1

2

1 0

0 1

S11 S12* S 21S 22* 0

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