Drawing tools

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Drawing tools

© All Rights Reserved

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& applied geometry

Contents

Preparation of tools

Using of tools

Applied Geometry

(or geometrical constructions)

Problem solving steps

Preparation of

Tools

Contents

Tools to be prepared

1. Paper

2. Pencils

3. Compass

Paper

1. Place a paper close to the left edge of a

table where a drafter can work conveniently.

2. Place a T-square.

3. Move the paper until its lower edge lies

close to the top edge of a T-square.

4. Align the top edge of the paper with

T-square blade.

5. Attach the papers corners with tape.

6. Move T-square down to smooth the paper.

7. Attach the remaining papers corners

with tape.

Pencil

1. Remove the wood with penknife while expose a lead

about 8-10 mm.

2. Polish the lead into a conical shape with a sandpaper.

3. Clean the lead with tissue paper.

Compass

1. Sharpen the lead with a sandpaper.

2. Adjust the needle and the lead so that the tip of

the needle extends slightly more than the lead.

needle

lead

Contents

Tools

1. T-square

2. Triangles

Shape to be drawn

Straight line

an inclined line with 15o increment, i.e. 15o, 30o, 45o,

60o, 75o, 90o, 105o, 120o, 135o, 150o, 165o, 180o etc.

3. Compass

4. Circle template

Arc, Circle

Do

Dont

Using a compass

1. Locate the center of the circle to be drawn.

Draw two intersecting lines.

2. Adjust the distance between a needle and a lead

to be a radius of the circle.

3. Set the needle point at the circles center.

Using a compass

4. Start circle. Apply enough pressure to the needle,

holding the compass handle between thumb and index

fingers.

5. Complete circle. Revolve the handle clockwise.

Using a template

1. Draw two perpendicular lines that pass through center of

a circle to be drawn.

2. Align all markings on template with the center lines.

3. Tracing the circle.

Given

Center of a circle to be drawn

Visible line

Construction line

Explanations

Given

given points.

2. Place the triangle against the

pencil tip.

pencil tip until its edge aligns with

the second point.

4. Draw a line.

play

1. Press the T-square head against the left edge

of the table.

2. Smooth the blade to the right.

3. Lean the pencil at an angle about 60o with the paper

in the direction of the line and slightly toed in.

4. Rotate the pencil slowly while moving the pencil

from left to right.

5. Move T-square up or down to draw another

horizontal line.

1. Set T-square as before.

Place any triangle on T-square edge.

2. Use your left hand to hold both T-square and triangle

in position.

3. Lean the pencil to the triangle.

4. Draw the line upward while rotating the pencil slowly.

1. Place 30o-60o triangle on the T-square edge and press

them firmly against the paper.

2. Draw the line in the direction as shown below.

1. Place 45o triangle on the T-square edge and press

them firmly against the paper.

2. Draw the line in the direction as shown below.

1. Place 30o-60o triangle on the T-square edge and press

them firmly against the paper.

2. Draw the line in the direction as shown below.

Practice by Yourself

Arrange the triangles to draw a line at

a) 120o

b) 135o

c) 150o

with a horizontal.

Applied Geometry

Bisecting

Parallel line

Inclined line

Tangent arc

Perpendicular

line

Tangent line

Contents

Bisecting a line

and an angle

Applied Geometry

Contents

Explanations

Given

greater than half-length of the

line with the centers at the

ends of the line.

A

r1

r1

the arcs with a line.

B

play

Applied Geometry

Explanations

Given

A

whose centers at the vertex.

r2

r1

r2

C

from the intersection points

between the previous arc and

the lines.

3. Draw the line.

play

Applied Geometry

Applied Geometry

Contents

through a given point

Explanations

Given

C

to a given line.

2. Support the triangle with

another one.

3. Slide the first triangle until its

edge passes through the

given point.

4. Draw a line.

play

Applied Geometry

at a given distance

Given

Explanations

1. Choose a convenient point on

a given line.

r

arc with a radius equal to a

given distance.

3. Draw a line parallel to a given

line and tangent to the arc.

play

Applied Geometry

Applied Geometry

Contents

Revolve method

Explanations

Given

triangle up to a given line.

2. Support the triangle with another

one.

3. Flip the first triangle and slide

until its edge passes through

the given point.

4. Draw a line.

play

Applied Geometry

Adjacent-sides method

Explanations

Given

triangle up to a given line.

one.

3. Slide the first triangle until

another adjacent edge passes

through the given point.

4. Draw a line.

play

Applied Geometry

Compass method

Given

Explanations

r2 > r 1

r2

draw the arc with any radius.

D

r2

r1

intersection points between an

arc and a given line.

3. Draw a line.

B

play

Applied Geometry

through a point outside the line

Adjacent-sides method

Explanations

Given

C

triangle up to a given line.

2. Support the triangle with another

one.

3. Slide the first triangle until

another adjacent edge passes

through the given point.

4. Draw a line.

play

Applied Geometry

through a point outside the line

Compass method

Explanations

Given

r2

+ C

D

r2

2. Bisect the distance between the

intersection points between an

arc and a given line.

3. Draw a line.

r1

play

draw the arc with any radius that

B

Applied Geometry

Practice by Yourself

Draw a line perpendicular to a given line and pass

through a point lies outside using revolved method.

Applied Geometry

Applied Geometry

Contents

through a given point

Given

Given

play

play

Applied Geometry

through a given point

Given

Given

play

play

Applied Geometry

through a given point

Given

Given

C

C

play

play

Applied Geometry

to an arc (or a circle)

Applied Geometry

Contents

Case 1 : A given point lies on an arc

Given

Explanations

1. Line an adjacent edge of a 45o

triangle up to the center of an

arc and a given given.

C

one.

3. Slide the first triangle until

another adjacent edge passes

through the given point.

play

4. Draw a line.

Applied Geometry

Case 2 : A given point lies outside an arc

1st method

Given

Given

play

2nd method

play

Applied Geometry

to the given lines

Applied Geometry

Contents

Key Concept

To draw a tangent arc (of a specified radius, R),

it is necessary to locate

1. its center, C.

It places outside a line for a distance

equal to a radius of an arc.

(or tangent points) of the arc.

It lies on a given line in the way

that the line passing through this

point and the center of an arc be

perpendicular to a given line.

Given 1. Locate the center of an arc

R

R

play

Continue

Applied Geometry

2. Locate the tangent points

TP.1

TP.2

Replay

Applied Geometry

to the given curves

Applied Geometry

Contents

Key Concept

Tangent point lies on the line passes through the centers

of each arc (or circle).

R3

R2

R1

To draw a tangent arc (of a specified radius, R),

it is necessary to locate

1. its center, C.

2. the start and end points (or tangent points) of the arc.

Case 1 : External

R

R1

C1

Case 2 : Internal

R

R2

R2

R1

C2

C1

C2

R-R1

R-R2

Given

R + R2

R + R1

R2

R

R1

C1+

+ C2

play

Applied Geometry

Given

R

R2

R1

+

C2

C1

R R2

R R1

play

Applied Geometry

Given

R2

R1

C1+

C2

+

R R1

C

play

R + R2

Applied Geometry

1. Calculate the required space.

2. Layout the drawing steps.

3. Match the construction techniques to each drawing step.

4. Start drawing.

Always use a construction line if the information to draw

a line or a curve is incomplete.

Example

Drawing steps VDO

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