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THIRD GROUP

Intan Savira (4301414069)
Ita Mawaddah

(4301414070)

Navela Rahma Aji (4301414089)
Nurferi Handayani (4301414029)

PURIFICATION OF NaCl

1945 grams • The weight of salt crystal from salt recrystallizing : 2.Observation data • Color of the salt before purified : turbid white (putih kotor) • Structure of salt crystals before purified : large particle (kasar/ kristal besar) • Color of the salt after purified : clean white • Structure of salt crystals after purified : soft powder • Volume of Ba(OH)2 required is : 3 mL • Volume of (NH4)2CO3 required is : 5 mL • The weight of salt crystal from salt recrystallizing : 0.3076 grams .

0987 N .35 ml N NaCl = = = 0.7 ml V2 = 4. N AgNO3 10 ml . N NaCl = VAgNO3 . 0.• The percentage of pure salt from recrystallizing process : • The percentage of pure salt = x 100% •  = •Titrations data Standardization AgNO3 Mass of concentated NaCl : 0.04293 N V NaCl .3 ml V3 = 4.4 ml Average volume of AgNO3 = 4.25 grams Volume of distilled water : 100 mL Volume AgNO3 that needed : V1 = 4.04293 N = 4. N AgNO3 N AgNO3 = 0.35 ml .

2522 grams Volume AgNO3 that needed : V1 = 4.00 ml Average volume of AgNO3 = 4.825 ml Mr NaCl = 58.46 .Determining the content of dirty salt Mass of dirty salt : 0.8 ml V2 = 3.85 ml Average volume of AgNO3 = 3.46 Determining the purity levels of NaCl after recrystallization Mass of pure salt : 0.05 ml V2 = 4.025 ml Mr NaCl = 58.2512 grams Volume AgNO3 that needed : V1 = 3.

•  The purity levels of NaCl before recrystallization process • The purity levels of NaCl after recrystallization process : .

 BaCO3 (s) Ba2+ + SO4 2. CaCO3 (s) .• The reaction that occur : Addition of CaO(s) into solution CaO (s)  Ca2+ + O2- Ca2+ + CO3 2. BaCO3 (s) Ca2+ + CO3 2. BaSO4 (s) Fe2+ + OH. CaCO3 (s) Ca2+ + SO4 2. CaSO4 (s)   Addition of BaOH(aq) into solution Ba(OH)2 (aq)  Ba2+ + OHBa2+ + CO3 2. Mg(OH)2 (s) Addition of (NH4)2CO3 (aq) into solution (NH4)2CO3 (aq)  2NH4+ + CO3 2Ba2+ + CO3 2. Fe(OH)2 (s) Mg2+ + OH.

Addition of HCl (aq) Cl.+ NH4+  NH4Cl   Titration reaction AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl NaNO3 (aq) (s)  AgCl (s) (white precipitate) + AgNO3 (aq) + K2CrO4 (s)  Ag2CrO4 (s) (red brick) + KNO3 (aq) .

they are titration of standardization AgNO3.Discussion The purpose is to study the recrystallization method with the addition of impurity binder material. and calculate the purity levels of NaCl. understand the methods of NaCl iodisation. and titration to determine the purity levels of NaCl after recrystallization. . titration to determine the content of dirty salt. In this experiment performed 3 different titration.

Purification NaCl Salt that has been dissolved in the distilled water.05 grams of calcium oxide (CaO). heated until boiling and then filtered using filter paper. The workings of calcium oxide as a coagulant is expected to obtain the purer salt than salt previously. addition of CaO can precipitate the impurities such as CO32.1.and SO42. The function of the addition of calcium oxide is increasing the difference of the solubility between the salt and the impurities.that contained in dirty salt. The reaction that happened : CaO (s)  Ca2+ + O2Ca2+ + CO3 2. The filtrate obtained then added with 0. CaSO4 (s) . CaCO3 (s) Ca2+ + SO4 2. Beside that.

4 x 10-21 . the function of Ba(OH)2 aqueous to bind impurities such as Mg2+. BaCO3 (s) • Ba2+ + SO4 2. CO3 2-. Fe(OH)2 (s) Ksp = 4. and SO4 2. Ba(OH)2 (aq)  Ba2+ + OH• Ba2+ + CO3 2. Beside that.The filtrate that obtained adding with Ba(OH)2 solution 1 M dropwise. Fe2+.8 x 10-16 • Mg2+ + OH. Mg(OH)2 (s) Ksp = 3. The addition in order to eliminate or prevent the formation of precipitate again due to the addition of calcium oxide (CaO) earlier.that still contained in the solution. BaSO4 (s) • Fe2+ + OH.

The reaction that happened : (NH4)2CO3 (aq)  2NH4+ + CO3 2Ksp = 8. BaCO3 (s) Ksp = 4. the precipitate that occurs filtered with filter paper. In the filtrate obtained adding with the solution of ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3. CaCO3 (s) . The addition in order to form the saturated solution and to bind the remaining impurities.8 x 10-9 •Ca2+ + CO3 2.1 x 10-9 •Ba2+ + CO3 2.Then.

The result of pH solution showed that the filtrate is alkaline. it was evaporated until the moisture content is lost.2522 grams with the percentage of pure salt is 92. The reaction that occur : NH4+ + HCl  NH4Cl (neutralization) After the solution is neutral. . Then the crystals obtained are weighed and the result is 0.0867%. So. the filtrate was neutralized with an acidic solution (dilute HCl) until the pH of the solution is neutral.The pH of filtrate obtained can be checked by using universal indicator. The shape of salt crystals after recrystallization process is soft powder with clean white color.

We also determine the purity levels of NaCl after recrystallization by the same way.• Determination of purity levels of NaCl The resulting standardize is normality AgNO 3 0.025 ml with the purity levels of NaCl after recrystallization is 92.25 grams of dirty salt dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water and doing titration with AgNO 3 by K2CrO4 indicator.0867 %.8593 %.825 ml. Titration is stopped until the color of the solution changes into a red brick and produces white precipitate. It result the average volume of AgNO 3 in the titration is 4. After that determine the purity levels of NaCl before recrystallization with 0. The reaction that occur is : AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl (s) + NaNO3 white precipitate AgNO3 + K2CrO4  Ag2Cr2O4 (s) + KNO3 red brick . Average volume of AgNO 3 in the titration is 3.0987 N. After calculation is resulted the purity levels of NaCl before recrystallization is 87.

• The purity levels of NaCl before recrystallization is 87. • NaCl purification is done by recrystallization method with the addition of impurity binder material such as CaO.Conclusion • Crystallization is the separation of a crystalline solid material from a solution based on the differences of solubility between the purified substance and impurities in a particular solvent.8593% and the purity levels of NaCl after recrystallization is 92. and (NH4)2CO3.0867%. Ba(OH) 2. .

Synthesis of Potassium Nitrate .

gas) NaNO3 : bluish white powder • Color and structure (solid. gas) KNO3 : white and shaped like needle .OBSERVATION DATA • Color and structure (solid. liquid. liquid. gas) KCl : white powder • Color and structure (solid. liquid.

The reaction occurs KCl (s) + H2O (l)  KCl (aq) NaNO3 (s) + H2O (l)  NaNO3 (aq) KCl (aq) + NaNO3 (aq)  KNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) After heating and giving setting low temperatures: KNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq)  KNO3 (s) + NaCl (aq) .

Calculating .

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5 mL. • The reaction is : KCl (s) + H2O (l)  KCl (aq) NaNO3 (s) + H2O (l)  NaNO3 (aq) .DISCUSSION • The initial stage of this trial is to synthesise potassium nitrate with solids as much as 4. The result of the process of awarding hot distilled water in both samples is the same. At this stage. Sodium nitrate is more soluble than the potassium chloride. distilled water is heated to accelerate dissolution happened.25 grams of sodium nitrate and potassium chloride solids as much as 3. based on the ease or difficulty of solubility that occurs. namely a clear solution.75 grams of first reconstituted with aqudes each 7. Meanwhile.

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THANKS .