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# Engineering Fundamentals

Unit #4

## Methods of Electric Circuit Analysis

Sources:
1. Ch. K. Alexander, M/N.O.Sadiku, Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, 5th Ed.2013, McGraw-Hill
2. Saeed Moaveni, Engineering Fundamentals: An Introduction to Engineering, 4th Ed.2011,
Cengage Learning
3. Dr. Walter L. Green ppt lectures on Electric Circuits, http://web.eecs.utk.edu/~green/

Engineering Fundamentals

Electric Circuits

Contents
1.

2.

## Introduction to Electric Circuits

1.
Introduction
2.
Systems of Units
3.
Charge and Current
4.
Voltage
5.
Power and Energy
6.
Circuit Elements
Basic Laws
Introduction
2.
Ohms Law
3.
Nodes, Branches, and Loops
4.
Kirchhoffs Laws
5.
Series Resistors and Voltage Division
6.
Parallel Resistors and Current Division
7.
Wye-Delta Transformations
8.
Applications

4.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

5.

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Method of Analysis
Motivation
Nodal analysis
Mesh analysis
Nodal and mesh analysis by inspection
Nodal versus mesh analysis

2.
3.
4.

Basic Concepts
Basic Laws
Methods of Analysis
Circuit Theorems

DC Circuits 2
1.
2.
3.
4.

8.

## Electric Current as a Fundamental Dimension

Direct Current and Alternating Current
Electrical Circuits and Components
Electric Motors
Lighting Systems

DC Circuits 1
1.

7.

## Engineering Problems and Fundamental Dimensions

Systems of Units
Unit Conversion
Engineering Components and Systems
Physical Laws and Observations in Engineering

1.

1.

3.

## Fundamental Dimensions and Units

Operational Amplifiers
Capacitors and Inductors
First-Order Circuits
Second-Order Circuits

1.
2.
3.
4.

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## Microsoft Excel Basic Ideas

Cells and Their Addresses
Creating Formulas in Excel
Using Excel Functions

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Contents
9.

1.
2.
3.
4.

10.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

11.

## MATLAB Basic Ideas

Using MATLAB Built-in Functions
Plotting with MATLAB
Importing Excel and Other Data Files into MATLAB
Matrix Computations with MATLAB
Curve Fitting with MATLAB
Symbolic Mathematics with MATLAB

)
1.
2.
3.
4.

12.

13.

## Using Excel Logical Functions

Plotting with Excel
Matrix Computation with Excel
Curve Fitting with Excel

Analysing
Analysing
Analysing
Analysing

## DC Resistive circuits using MATLAB

R-L circuits using MATLAB
R-C circuits using MATLAB
R-L-C circuits using MATLAB

14.

## Computational Engineering Tools 4: Octave/

Scilab
1. Octave/Scilab Basic Ideas
2. Octave/Scilab vs MATLAB
3. Analysing Resistive circuits using Octave/Scilab
4. Analysing R-L-C circuits using Octave/Scilab
Engineering Drawings and Symbols
1. Importance of Engineering Drawing
2. Orthographic Views
3. Dimensioning and Tolerancing
4. Isometric View
5. Sectional Views
6. Civil, Electrical, and Electronic Drawings
7. Solid Modelling
8. Engineering Symbols
9. Common Symbols in Civil, Electrical, and Mecha
nical Engineering

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## SIMULINK Basic Ideas

Basic elements: Blocks and lines
Analysing Resistive circuits using SIMULINK
Analysing R-L-C circuits using SIMULINK
Analysing R-L-C circuits
Using Simpower of SIMULINK

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Methods of Analysis

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We will discuss
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Motivation
Nodal analysis
Nodal analysis with voltage sources
Mesh analysis
Mesh analysis with current sources
Nodal and mesh analysis by inspection
Nodal versus mesh analysis

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Methods of Analysis
3.1 Motivation (1)
If we are given the following circuit, how can we determine
(1)the voltage across each resistor,
(2)current through each resistor.
(3)power generated by each current source, etc.

What are the things which we need to know in order to determine the
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Methods of Analysis
3.1 Motivation (2)
Things we need to know in solving any resistive
circuit with current and voltage sources only:
Kirchhoffs Current Laws (KCL)
Kirchhoffs Voltage Laws (KVL)
Ohms Law

## How should we apply these laws to determine the

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Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (1)
It provides a general procedure for analyzing circuits using
node voltages as the circuit variables.

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Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (2)
The Concept
Every circuit has n nodes with one
of the nodes being designated as a
reference node.
We designate the remaining n 1
nodes as voltage nodes and give
each node a unique name, vi.
At each node we write Kirchhoffs current law in terms of the
node voltages.
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Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (3)
The Concept
We form n-1 linear equations
at the n-1 nodes in terms of the
node voltages.
We solve the n-1 equations for
the n-1 node voltages.
From the node voltages we can
calculate any branch current or any
voltage across any element (Ohms
Law)
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10

10

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (4)
Concept
vIllustration:
2

v
R

## Figure 3.1: Partial circuit

used to illustrate nodal
analysis.

r e fe r e n c e n o d e

## We form n 1 linear equations at the n 1 nodes in terms of the node voltages

starting from node 1 (KCL)

v1 v2 v1 v1 v1 v3

I
R2
R1 R3
R4

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(3.1)
11

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (5)
Clearing the previous equation gives,
1
1
1
1
1
1

V1 V2 V3 I

R2
R
4
R1 R2 R3 R4

(3.2)

## We would need two additional equations, from the

remaining circuit, in order to solve for V1, V2, and V3

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12

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (6)
Example 3.1Given the following circuit. Set-up the equations

to solve for V1 and V2. Also solve for the voltage V6.
R

v1

v2

## We form n 1=3 1=2

linear equations at the n
1 =2 nodes in terms of
the node voltages
starting from node 1
(KCL)

I1

v6
_

V1
V1 V2

I1
R1 R2
R3

(3.3)

V2 V1 V2
V2

0
R3
R4
R5 R6

(3.4)

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13

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (7)
Node 1
Conductance

G11

G12

1
1
V1

R1 R2 R3

Mutual conductance
between Node 2 and
Node 1

G21

## Mutual conductance between Node

1 and Node 2

1
V2 I1
R3

G22

(3.5)

Node 2
Conductance

1
1
1
1
V1

V2 0
R3
R3 R4 R5 R6

G11v1 G12 v2 I
G21 G12
G21v1 G22 v2 0
v1 G11
Solution for v1 and v2
v
G
2
21

(3.6)

G11 G12 v1
G
v
G
21
22
2

G 12
G
22

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I1

I2

I1
I2
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14

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (8)

Example 3.2

## Given the following circuit. Setup the equations to solve for V1

and V2.
V1 V1 V2
At v1:
(3.7)
Solution

2
10
5
V2 V1 V2
(3.8)
At v2:

6
5
20

2 A
v1

5
10

v2

20

4 A

1 1
1
1 1
G11 ; G21 G12 ; G22 ; I1 2; I 2 4
5 10
5
5 20

(3.9)

v1
v
2

G11 G 12

G
G

21
22

I1
I2

## Find V1 and V2.

(3.10)

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v1
20
v 40

2
15

(3.11)
15

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (9)

Example 3.3

## Given the following circuit with

voltage and current sources.
Set-up the equations to solve
for V1 and V2.
V1 E V1
V V2
At Solution
V1:

1
I (3.12)
R1

At V2:

R2

v1

v2
R

R3

V2 V
1 I

R
R
4
3

V2

(3.13)

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16

Methods of Analysis
Example 3.3 cont.

1
1
1

V
R R
R 1
2
3
1

1
E
V2 I

R
R1

(3.14)

1
1
1
V1
V2 I
R2
R3 R4

(3.15)

## 15) could be expressed in the following matrix form:

v1
v
2

G11 G 12

G

G

21
22

G11 G12
I 1

I
G
G
2
21
22

I g1 E1
I

(3.16)

where:

G11

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

; G12 G21
; G22

; g1 ; E1 E (3.17)
R R
R
R
R
R
R
1
2
3
3
3
4
1
17
17
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Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (11)
(10)

Example 3.4
Given the following circuit with
voltage and current sources.
Find V1 and V2.
Solution
At v1: V1 V1 10 V2

5
10
4
At v2: V2 V2 10 V1

v2

10 V
+

v1

5 A

10

(3.18)

(3.19)

1 1
1
1
10 4 V1 4 V2 5 4 10

## Rearranging (3.18) and (3.19), we have:

1 V 1 1 V 0 1 10
2
4 1 6 4
4

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18

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (12)

## Example 3.4 cont.

1 1
1
1
10 4 V1 4 V2 5 4 10

1 V 1 1 V 0 1 10
2
4 1 6 4
4

## In matrix form we have:

v1
The solution:
v2
Finally:

I1 g1 E1
G11 G12 v1 I 1

G

I 2 g1 E1
21 G22 v2 I 2

G11 G 12

G

G

21
22

G11
I 1

G
2
21

G12
G
22

v1 = -30 V, v2 = -12 V, i1 = -2 A
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I1 g1 E1
I 2 g1 E1

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (13)

Example 3.5
Given the following circuit
with voltage super node.
Solve for indicated nodal
voltages
V1,V2,V3.

super node

x
2

10 V

6 A

10

Solution

## When a voltage source appears between two nodes, an

easy way to handle this is to form a super node. The super
node encircles the voltage source and the tips of the
branches connected to the nodes.

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20

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (14)

Solution
v1 v2 v1 v3

6
5
2

At v1:

2
v2

v1

At super node:

v
v v
v2 v1 v2

3 3 1 0
5
4 10
2

v3

10 V

6 A

10

Constraint Equation:v2 v3 10
Clearing the above equations:

v2 v3 10

## Solving gives: v1 30 V, v2 14.29 V, v3 24.29 V

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21

16

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (15)

Example 3.5

## Given the following circuit

with with Dependent
Sources. Solve for indicated
nodal voltages v1,v2.
In this case we have a
Solution

## dependent source, 5Vx, that

must be reckoned
with. Actually, there is a
v2 v x ofv1 0
constraint equation
v 10
v
v v
At node v1: 1
1 1 2 2
10
5
2
At node v2

v1
10
10 V

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2 A

v2
4

+
_

v2 v1 v2 5vx

2
2
4

5V

8v1 5v2 30

7v1 8v2 8
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22

Methods of Analysis
Example 3.5 cont.

## Clearing the previous equations and substituting the

constraint
gives:

vx v1 v2

8v1 5v2 30

7v1 8v2 8
which yields,

v1 6.9 V; v2 5.03V

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23

20

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (16)
Recall
Steps to determine the node voltages:
1. Select a node as the reference node.
2. Assign voltages v1,v2,,vn-1 to the remaining
n1 nodes. The voltages are referenced with
respect to the reference node.
3. Apply KCL to each of the n 1 non-reference
nodes. Use Ohms law to express the branch
currents in terms of node voltages.
4. Solve the resulting simultaneous equations
to obtain the unknown node voltages.
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24

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (17)
Problem 1 circuit with independent current source only
Apply KCl at
node 1 and 2

v1

v2

## *answer v1 = -2V, v2 = 14V

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25

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (18)
Problem 2 current with dependent current source

## *answer v1= 4.8V, v2 = 2.4V, v3 = 2.4V

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26

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (19)
Problem 3 circuit with independent voltage source - Super
node

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27

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (21)
Problem 4 circuit with independent and dependent voltage
sources

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28

Methods of Analysis
3.2 Nodal Analysis (17)
Example 7 circuit with two independent voltage sources

-i1-i2 + i3 = 0

-i3-i5-i4 + i1 = 0

v1-20-v2 = 0

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v3-3vx-v4 = 0
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29

Methods of Analysis

Mesh Analysis

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30

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (2)

Basic Concepts:

## In formulating mesh analysis we assign a mesh

current to each mesh.

## Mesh currents are sort of fictitious in that a particular

mesh current does not define the current in each branch
of the mesh to which it is assigned.

I1

I2

I3

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31

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (3)

Basic Concepts:
+

I1

L 1

+
x

I2

## Around mesh 2 we have

V1 VL1 VA

With:

where

v1 i1 R1 ; vL1 i1 i2 RX

so:

( R1 RX )i1 RX i2 VA

(3.3-1)

vL1 v2 VB

vL1 (i2 i1 ) RX ;

v2 i2 R2

substituting: R i ( R R )i V
X 1
X
2 2
B
or:

RX i1 ( RX R2 )i2 VB

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(3.3-2)
32

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (4)

Basic Concepts:
rearranging:

RX i2 VA
( R1 RX )i1

RX i1 ( RX R2 )i2 VB

(3.3-3)

In matrix form:

RX i1
( R1 RX )
VA

R

( RX R2 i2

X
VB

(3.3-4)

## We can easily solve these equations for i1 and i2.

RX
i1 ( R1 RX )
i
R

R
(
R

2
X
X
2

VA
V
B

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(3.3-5)

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33

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (5)

Example 3.3-1.
Write the mesh equations
and solve for the currents
i1, and i2.

10V

+
_

I1

2
7

6
2V

I2

+
_

_
+

20V

Solution
Figure E3.3-1 Circuit for the Example

Mesh 1

4i1 6(i1 i2 ) 10 2

(3.3-6)

Mesh 2

## 6(i2 i1 ) 2i2 7i2 2 20

(3.3-7)

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34

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (6)
Simplifying (3.3-6) and (3.3-7) gives,

10i1 6i2 8

6i1 15i2 22
%
R
v
i

A
=
=
=

(3.3-8)
(3.3-9)

MATLAB Solution
[10 -6;-6 15];
[8;22];
inv(R)*v

i =
2.2105
2.3509

i1 = 2.2105
i2 = 2.3509
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35

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (7)

Example 3.3-2.

_
_ +

## Solve for the mesh

currents in the circuit.
10

Solution
Write KVL, clockwise, for each
mesh.

12V

I3

6
20V

8V
+ _

11
4

+
__

I1

_
+

10V

Mesh 1:

## Fig 3.3-2. : Circuit for the

6I1 + 10(I1 I3) + 4(I1 I2) = 20 + 10 Example. (3.3-10)

Mesh 2:

(3.3-11)

Mesh 3:

## 9I3 + 11(I3 I2) + 10(I3 I1) = 12 + 8

(3.3-12)

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I2

36

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (8)
Clearing Equations (3.3.10), (3.3.11) and (3.3.12) gives,
Standard Equation form

20 I1 4 I 2 10 I 3 30

4 I1 18I 2 11I 3 18

10 I 11I 30 I 20
1
2
3

In matrix form:

10
11
10 11 30
20
4

4
18

I1
30
I 18
2

I 3
20

## WE NOW MAKE AN IMPORTANT OBSERVATION!!

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37

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (9)
Standard form for mesh
equations
emfs
R11 R12 R13 I1
(1)
R
I emfs (2)
R
R
22
23
21
2

(3)
emfs

(3.3-13)

## R12 = R21 = resistance common between mesh 1

and 2
when I1 and
I2 are opposite
through
R13 = R31 = resistance
common
between
mesh 1
R
.
1,R23
and
when I1 and
I3 are opposite
through
R23 = R32 = resistance
common
between
mesh 2
R
.
1,R33
and
when I2 and I3 are opposite through
R2,R3.
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38

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (10)
Standard form for mesh equations,
cont.
emfs (1) sum of emf around mesh 1 in the direction of I1.
emfs (2) sum of emf around mesh 2 in the direction of I 2
emfs (3) sum of emf around mesh 3 in the direction of I 3 .

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39

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (11)

## Mesh Analysis General

R11Equations
R12 L R1n I1
emfs (1)
emfs (2)
R21 R22 L R2 n I 2

M M O
M M
M

Rn1 Rn 2 L Rnn I n

emfs
(
n

Ri = e

## emfs(1) sum of emf around mesh 1 in the direction of I1.

emfs(2) sum of emf around mesh 2 in the direction of I 2
emfs (n) sum of emf around mesh n in the direction of I n .
Rij = total resistance in the "i"th mesh seen by current "j
Rii = total resistance in the "i"th mesh seen by the ith current loop
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40

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (12)

Example 3.3-3.

Use the direct method to write the mesh equations for the following.
20

20V

+
_

30

I2
+
_

10V

10
I1

12

15V
10

I3

(3.3-14)

_
+

30V

## Figure 3.3-3: Circuit diagram for the Example

30 10 0
10 50 10

0 10 30

I1 10
I 25
2
I 3 15

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(3.3-15)

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41

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (13)

Example 3.3-4.

Solution
When a current source is present, it
will be directly related to one or
more of the mesh current. In this
case I2 = 4 A.

20V
_ +

## Consider the following circuit

with current sources in it. Use
the direct method to write the
mesh equations.

I3

10

10V

+
_

I1

20

I2

4A

15

## Figure 3.3.4: Circuit diagram.

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42

Methods of Analysis
Example 3.3-4. cont.

## An easy way to handle this case is

to remove the current source as
shown below. Next, write the mesh
equations for the remaining
meshes.
Note that I2 is retained for writing
the equations through the 5 and
20 resistors.

20V
_ +

I3

10

10V

+
_

I1

20

I2
15

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43

Methods of Analysis
Example 3.3-4. cont.

## Equation for mesh 1:

or

10I1 + (I1-I2)5 = 10

I3

10

15I1 5I2 = 10

20V
_ +

10V

+
_

I1

## 2I3 + (I3 I2)20 = 20

20

I2
15

or
20I2 + 22I3 = 20
Constraint Equation
I2 = 4 A

15 I1 5 I 2 0 I 3 10

0 I1 20 I 2 22 I 3 20

0 I I 0 I 4
1
2
3

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44

(3.3-15)
(3.3-16)
(3.3-17)
44

Methods of Analysis
Example 3.3-4. cont.

## Express the previous equations (3.3-15) (3.3-16) (3.3-17) in

Matrix form:

15 5 0 I1 10
0 20 22 I 20

2
0
1
0 I 3 4

(3.3-18)

I1 = 0.667 A
I2 = 4 A

(3.3-19)

I3 = 2.73 A
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45

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (17)
Exercise 1 circuit with independent voltage sources

Note:
i1 and i2 are mesh current (imaginative, not measurable directly)
I1, I2 and I3 are branch current (real, measurable directly)
I1 = i1; I2 = i2; I3 = i1 - i2

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46

Methods of Analysis
3.3 Mesh Analysis (18)
Exercise 2 circuit with dependent voltage source

*Answer io = 1.5A
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47

Methods of Analysis
3.4 Nodal & Mesh Analysis by inspection (1)
Exercise 3 By inspection, write the nodal voltage equations for the circuit

## *Refer to in-class illustration,Engineering

textbook
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48

Methods of Analysis
3.4 Nodal & Mesh Analysis by inspection (2)
Exercise 4 By inspection, write the mesh-current equations for the circuit

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49

## Nodal versus Mesh Analysis

Select the method that results in the smaller number of
equations:

meshes.

## Networks with parallel-connected elements, current sources,

or supernodes are more suitable for nodal analysis.
If node voltages are required, it may be convenient to apply
nodal analysis

nodes.

## Networks that contain many series connected elements,

voltage sources, or super meshes are more suitable for mesh
analysis.
If branch or mesh currents are required, it may be better to
use mesh analysis
Engineering
Fundamentals
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Fundamentals

50

50

## Wye/Delta & Delta/Wye

Conversions

Engineering Fundamentals

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## Wye/Delta & Delta/Wye

Conversions

Conversion
R1

Wye/Delta
Rc

R2
a
R3

Ra

Rb

c
Wye

Delta
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## Wye/Delta & Delta/Wye

Conversions
Wye/Delta
Conversion

R1 R2 R1 R3 R2 R3
Ra
R1
R1 R2 R1 R3 R2 R3
Rb
R2
R1 R2 R1 R3 R2 R3
Rc
R3
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## Wye/Delta & Delta/Wye

Conversions
Delta/Wye
Conversion

Rb Rc
R1
Ra Rb Rc
Ra Rc
R2
Ra Rb Rc
Ra Rb
R3
Ra Rb Rc
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## Wye/Delta & Delta/Wye

Conversions
Effects of D-Y and Y-D
Conversion

## D-Y Conversion eliminates a loop

but adds a node.
Y-D Conversion eliminates a node
but adds a loop.

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## Wye/Delta & Delta/Wye

Conversions
Y/D conversion

Example 1
Find Rab for the circuit
using Y/D conversion

Solution

Several
Methods:
We choose to eliminate
node c, then simplify.

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Y- Conversion
Calculations
20 12 20
30
12 30

Red
100
12
20 12 20
30
12 30

Rdf
60
20

20 12 20
30
12 30

Ref
40
30
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New Circuit

Engineering Fundamentals

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Further Simplifications

Rab 10

40 80 40
40 80 40

Engineering Fundamentals

20 60
59