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Unit #4

Sources:

1. Ch. K. Alexander, M/N.O.Sadiku, Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, 5th Ed.2013, McGraw-Hill

2. Saeed Moaveni, Engineering Fundamentals: An Introduction to Engineering, 4th Ed.2011,

Cengage Learning

3. Dr. Walter L. Green ppt lectures on Electric Circuits, http://web.eecs.utk.edu/~green/

Engineering Fundamentals

Electric Circuits

Contents

1.

2.

1.

Introduction

2.

Systems of Units

3.

Charge and Current

4.

Voltage

5.

Power and Energy

6.

Circuit Elements

Basic Laws

Introduction

2.

Ohms Law

3.

Nodes, Branches, and Loops

4.

Kirchhoffs Laws

5.

Series Resistors and Voltage Division

6.

Parallel Resistors and Current Division

7.

Wye-Delta Transformations

8.

Applications

4.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

5.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Method of Analysis

Motivation

Nodal analysis

Mesh analysis

Nodal and mesh analysis by inspection

Nodal versus mesh analysis

2.

3.

4.

Basic Concepts

Basic Laws

Methods of Analysis

Circuit Theorems

DC Circuits 2

1.

2.

3.

4.

8.

Direct Current and Alternating Current

Electrical Circuits and Components

Electric Motors

Lighting Systems

DC Circuits 1

1.

7.

Systems of Units

Unit Conversion

Engineering Components and Systems

Physical Laws and Observations in Engineering

1.

1.

3.

Operational Amplifiers

Capacitors and Inductors

First-Order Circuits

Second-Order Circuits

1.

2.

3.

4.

Engineering

Fundamentals

Engineering

Fundamentals

Cells and Their Addresses

Creating Formulas in Excel

Using Excel Functions

Engineering Fundamentals

Contents

9.

1.

2.

3.

4.

10.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

11.

Using MATLAB Built-in Functions

Plotting with MATLAB

Importing Excel and Other Data Files into MATLAB

Matrix Computations with MATLAB

Curve Fitting with MATLAB

Symbolic Mathematics with MATLAB

)

1.

2.

3.

4.

12.

13.

Plotting with Excel

Matrix Computation with Excel

Curve Fitting with Excel

Analysing

Analysing

Analysing

Analysing

R-L circuits using MATLAB

R-C circuits using MATLAB

R-L-C circuits using MATLAB

14.

Scilab

1. Octave/Scilab Basic Ideas

2. Octave/Scilab vs MATLAB

3. Analysing Resistive circuits using Octave/Scilab

4. Analysing R-L-C circuits using Octave/Scilab

Engineering Drawings and Symbols

1. Importance of Engineering Drawing

2. Orthographic Views

3. Dimensioning and Tolerancing

4. Isometric View

5. Sectional Views

6. Civil, Electrical, and Electronic Drawings

7. Solid Modelling

8. Engineering Symbols

9. Common Symbols in Civil, Electrical, and Mecha

nical Engineering

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Basic elements: Blocks and lines

Analysing Resistive circuits using SIMULINK

Analysing R-L-C circuits using SIMULINK

Analysing R-L-C circuits

Using Simpower of SIMULINK

Engineering

Fundamentals

Engineering

Fundamentals

Methods of Analysis

Engineering

Fundamentals

Engineering

Fundamentals

We will discuss

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Motivation

Nodal analysis

Nodal analysis with voltage sources

Mesh analysis

Mesh analysis with current sources

Nodal and mesh analysis by inspection

Nodal versus mesh analysis

Engineering

Fundamentals

Engineering

Fundamentals

Methods of Analysis

3.1 Motivation (1)

If we are given the following circuit, how can we determine

(1)the voltage across each resistor,

(2)current through each resistor.

(3)power generated by each current source, etc.

What are the things which we need to know in order to determine the

answers?

Engineering

Fundamentals

Engineering

Fundamentals

Methods of Analysis

3.1 Motivation (2)

Things we need to know in solving any resistive

circuit with current and voltage sources only:

Kirchhoffs Current Laws (KCL)

Kirchhoffs Voltage Laws (KVL)

Ohms Law

answers?

Engineering

Fundamentals

Engineering

Fundamentals

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (1)

It provides a general procedure for analyzing circuits using

node voltages as the circuit variables.

Engineering

Fundamentals

Engineering

Fundamentals

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (2)

The Concept

Every circuit has n nodes with one

of the nodes being designated as a

reference node.

We designate the remaining n 1

nodes as voltage nodes and give

each node a unique name, vi.

At each node we write Kirchhoffs current law in terms of the

node voltages.

Engineering

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Engineering

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Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (3)

The Concept

We form n-1 linear equations

at the n-1 nodes in terms of the

node voltages.

We solve the n-1 equations for

the n-1 node voltages.

From the node voltages we can

calculate any branch current or any

voltage across any element (Ohms

Law)

Engineering

Fundamentals

Engineering

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10

10

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (4)

Concept

vIllustration:

2

v

R

used to illustrate nodal

analysis.

r e fe r e n c e n o d e

starting from node 1 (KCL)

v1 v2 v1 v1 v1 v3

I

R2

R1 R3

R4

Engineering Fundamentals

(3.1)

11

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (5)

Clearing the previous equation gives,

1

1

1

1

1

1

V1 V2 V3 I

R2

R

4

R1 R2 R3 R4

(3.2)

remaining circuit, in order to solve for V1, V2, and V3

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12

12

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (6)

Example 3.1Given the following circuit. Set-up the equations

to solve for V1 and V2. Also solve for the voltage V6.

R

v1

v2

linear equations at the n

1 =2 nodes in terms of

the node voltages

starting from node 1

(KCL)

I1

v6

_

V1

V1 V2

I1

R1 R2

R3

(3.3)

V2 V1 V2

V2

0

R3

R4

R5 R6

(3.4)

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Engineering

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13

13

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (7)

Node 1

Conductance

G11

G12

1

1

V1

R1 R2 R3

Mutual conductance

between Node 2 and

Node 1

G21

1 and Node 2

1

V2 I1

R3

G22

(3.5)

Node 2

Conductance

1

1

1

1

V1

V2 0

R3

R3 R4 R5 R6

G11v1 G12 v2 I

G21 G12

G21v1 G22 v2 0

v1 G11

Solution for v1 and v2

v

G

2

21

(3.6)

G11 G12 v1

G

v

G

21

22

2

G 12

G

22

Engineering

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Engineering

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I1

I2

I1

I2

14

14

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (8)

Example 3.2

and V2.

V1 V1 V2

At v1:

(3.7)

Solution

2

10

5

V2 V1 V2

(3.8)

At v2:

6

5

20

2 A

v1

5

10

v2

20

4 A

1 1

1

1 1

G11 ; G21 G12 ; G22 ; I1 2; I 2 4

5 10

5

5 20

(3.9)

v1

v

2

G11 G 12

G

G

21

22

I1

I2

(3.10)

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Engineering

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v1

20

v 40

2

15

(3.11)

15

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (9)

Example 3.3

voltage and current sources.

Set-up the equations to solve

for V1 and V2.

V1 E V1

V V2

At Solution

V1:

1

I (3.12)

R1

At V2:

R2

v1

v2

R

R3

V2 V

1 I

R

R

4

3

V2

(3.13)

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16

16

Methods of Analysis

Example 3.3 cont.

1

1

1

V

R R

R 1

2

3

1

1

E

V2 I

R

R1

(3.14)

1

1

1

V1

V2 I

R2

R3 R4

(3.15)

v1

v

2

G11 G 12

G

G

21

22

G11 G12

I 1

I

G

G

2

21

22

I g1 E1

I

(3.16)

where:

G11

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

; G12 G21

; G22

; g1 ; E1 E (3.17)

R R

R

R

R

R

R

1

2

3

3

3

4

1

17

17

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Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (11)

(10)

Example 3.4

Given the following circuit with

voltage and current sources.

Find V1 and V2.

Solution

At v1: V1 V1 10 V2

5

10

4

At v2: V2 V2 10 V1

v2

10 V

+

v1

5 A

10

(3.18)

(3.19)

1 1

1

1

10 4 V1 4 V2 5 4 10

1 V 1 1 V 0 1 10

2

4 1 6 4

4

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18

18

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (12)

1 1

1

1

10 4 V1 4 V2 5 4 10

1 V 1 1 V 0 1 10

2

4 1 6 4

4

v1

The solution:

v2

Finally:

I1 g1 E1

G11 G12 v1 I 1

G

I 2 g1 E1

21 G22 v2 I 2

G11 G 12

G

G

21

22

G11

I 1

G

2

21

G12

G

22

v1 = -30 V, v2 = -12 V, i1 = -2 A

Engineering Fundamentals

19

I1 g1 E1

I 2 g1 E1

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (13)

Example 3.5

Given the following circuit

with voltage super node.

Solve for indicated nodal

voltages

V1,V2,V3.

super node

x

2

10 V

6 A

10

Solution

easy way to handle this is to form a super node. The super

node encircles the voltage source and the tips of the

branches connected to the nodes.

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20

20

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (14)

Solution

v1 v2 v1 v3

6

5

2

At v1:

2

v2

v1

At super node:

v

v v

v2 v1 v2

3 3 1 0

5

4 10

2

v3

10 V

6 A

10

Constraint Equation:v2 v3 10

Clearing the above equations:

v2 v3 10

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21

21

16

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (15)

Example 3.5

with with Dependent

Sources. Solve for indicated

nodal voltages v1,v2.

In this case we have a

Solution

must be reckoned

with. Actually, there is a

v2 v x ofv1 0

constraint equation

v 10

v

v v

At node v1: 1

1 1 2 2

10

5

2

At node v2

v1

10

10 V

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Engineering

Fundamentals

2 A

v2

4

+

_

v2 v1 v2 5vx

2

2

4

5V

8v1 5v2 30

7v1 8v2 8

22

22

Methods of Analysis

Example 3.5 cont.

constraint

gives:

vx v1 v2

8v1 5v2 30

7v1 8v2 8

which yields,

v1 6.9 V; v2 5.03V

Engineering

Fundamentals

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23

23

20

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (16)

Recall

Steps to determine the node voltages:

1. Select a node as the reference node.

2. Assign voltages v1,v2,,vn-1 to the remaining

n1 nodes. The voltages are referenced with

respect to the reference node.

3. Apply KCL to each of the n 1 non-reference

nodes. Use Ohms law to express the branch

currents in terms of node voltages.

4. Solve the resulting simultaneous equations

to obtain the unknown node voltages.

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24

24

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (17)

Problem 1 circuit with independent current source only

Apply KCl at

node 1 and 2

v1

v2

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25

25

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (18)

Problem 2 current with dependent current source

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26

26

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (19)

Problem 3 circuit with independent voltage source - Super

node

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27

27

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (21)

Problem 4 circuit with independent and dependent voltage

sources

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28

28

Methods of Analysis

3.2 Nodal Analysis (17)

Example 7 circuit with two independent voltage sources

-i1-i2 + i3 = 0

-i3-i5-i4 + i1 = 0

v1-20-v2 = 0

Engineering

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Engineering

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v3-3vx-v4 = 0

29

29

Methods of Analysis

Mesh Analysis

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30

30

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (2)

Basic Concepts:

current to each mesh.

mesh current does not define the current in each branch

of the mesh to which it is assigned.

I1

I2

I3

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31

31

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (3)

Basic Concepts:

+

I1

L 1

+

x

I2

V1 VL1 VA

With:

where

v1 i1 R1 ; vL1 i1 i2 RX

so:

( R1 RX )i1 RX i2 VA

(3.3-1)

vL1 v2 VB

vL1 (i2 i1 ) RX ;

v2 i2 R2

substituting: R i ( R R )i V

X 1

X

2 2

B

or:

RX i1 ( RX R2 )i2 VB

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32

(3.3-2)

32

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (4)

Basic Concepts:

rearranging:

RX i2 VA

( R1 RX )i1

RX i1 ( RX R2 )i2 VB

(3.3-3)

In matrix form:

RX i1

( R1 RX )

VA

R

( RX R2 i2

X

VB

(3.3-4)

RX

i1 ( R1 RX )

i

R

R

(

R

2

X

X

2

VA

V

B

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Engineering

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(3.3-5)

33

33

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (5)

Example 3.3-1.

Write the mesh equations

and solve for the currents

i1, and i2.

10V

+

_

I1

2

7

6

2V

I2

+

_

_

+

20V

Solution

Figure E3.3-1 Circuit for the Example

Mesh 1

4i1 6(i1 i2 ) 10 2

(3.3-6)

Mesh 2

(3.3-7)

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34

34

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (6)

Simplifying (3.3-6) and (3.3-7) gives,

10i1 6i2 8

6i1 15i2 22

%

R

v

i

A

=

=

=

(3.3-8)

(3.3-9)

MATLAB Solution

[10 -6;-6 15];

[8;22];

inv(R)*v

i =

2.2105

2.3509

i1 = 2.2105

i2 = 2.3509

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35

35

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (7)

Example 3.3-2.

_

_ +

currents in the circuit.

10

Solution

Write KVL, clockwise, for each

mesh.

12V

I3

6

20V

8V

+ _

11

4

+

__

I1

_

+

10V

Mesh 1:

6I1 + 10(I1 I3) + 4(I1 I2) = 20 + 10 Example. (3.3-10)

Mesh 2:

(3.3-11)

Mesh 3:

(3.3-12)

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36

I2

36

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (8)

Clearing Equations (3.3.10), (3.3.11) and (3.3.12) gives,

Standard Equation form

20 I1 4 I 2 10 I 3 30

4 I1 18I 2 11I 3 18

10 I 11I 30 I 20

1

2

3

In matrix form:

10

11

10 11 30

20

4

4

18

I1

30

I 18

2

I 3

20

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37

37

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (9)

Standard form for mesh

equations

emfs

R11 R12 R13 I1

(1)

R

I emfs (2)

R

R

22

23

21

2

(3)

emfs

(3.3-13)

and 2

when I1 and

I2 are opposite

through

R13 = R31 = resistance

common

between

mesh 1

R

.

1,R23

and

when I1 and

I3 are opposite

through

R23 = R32 = resistance

common

between

mesh 2

R

.

1,R33

and

when I2 and I3 are opposite through

R2,R3.

Engineering

Fundamentals

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38

38

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (10)

Standard form for mesh equations,

cont.

emfs (1) sum of emf around mesh 1 in the direction of I1.

emfs (2) sum of emf around mesh 2 in the direction of I 2

emfs (3) sum of emf around mesh 3 in the direction of I 3 .

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39

39

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (11)

R11Equations

R12 L R1n I1

emfs (1)

emfs (2)

R21 R22 L R2 n I 2

M M O

M M

M

Rn1 Rn 2 L Rnn I n

emfs

(

n

Ri = e

emfs(2) sum of emf around mesh 2 in the direction of I 2

emfs (n) sum of emf around mesh n in the direction of I n .

Rij = total resistance in the "i"th mesh seen by current "j

Rii = total resistance in the "i"th mesh seen by the ith current loop

Engineering

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40

40

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (12)

Example 3.3-3.

Use the direct method to write the mesh equations for the following.

20

20V

+

_

30

I2

+

_

10V

10

I1

12

15V

10

I3

(3.3-14)

_

+

30V

30 10 0

10 50 10

0 10 30

I1 10

I 25

2

I 3 15

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Engineering

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(3.3-15)

41

41

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (13)

Example 3.3-4.

Solution

When a current source is present, it

will be directly related to one or

more of the mesh current. In this

case I2 = 4 A.

20V

_ +

with current sources in it. Use

the direct method to write the

mesh equations.

I3

10

10V

+

_

I1

20

I2

4A

15

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42

42

Methods of Analysis

Example 3.3-4. cont.

to remove the current source as

shown below. Next, write the mesh

equations for the remaining

meshes.

Note that I2 is retained for writing

the equations through the 5 and

20 resistors.

20V

_ +

I3

10

10V

+

_

I1

20

I2

15

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43

43

Methods of Analysis

Example 3.3-4. cont.

or

10I1 + (I1-I2)5 = 10

I3

10

15I1 5I2 = 10

20V

_ +

10V

+

_

I1

20

I2

15

or

20I2 + 22I3 = 20

Constraint Equation

I2 = 4 A

15 I1 5 I 2 0 I 3 10

0 I1 20 I 2 22 I 3 20

0 I I 0 I 4

1

2

3

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44

(3.3-15)

(3.3-16)

(3.3-17)

44

Methods of Analysis

Example 3.3-4. cont.

Matrix form:

15 5 0 I1 10

0 20 22 I 20

2

0

1

0 I 3 4

(3.3-18)

I1 = 0.667 A

I2 = 4 A

(3.3-19)

I3 = 2.73 A

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45

45

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (17)

Exercise 1 circuit with independent voltage sources

Note:

i1 and i2 are mesh current (imaginative, not measurable directly)

I1, I2 and I3 are branch current (real, measurable directly)

I1 = i1; I2 = i2; I3 = i1 - i2

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46

46

Methods of Analysis

3.3 Mesh Analysis (18)

Exercise 2 circuit with dependent voltage source

*Answer io = 1.5A

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47

47

Methods of Analysis

3.4 Nodal & Mesh Analysis by inspection (1)

Exercise 3 By inspection, write the nodal voltage equations for the circuit

textbook

Fundamentals

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48

48

Methods of Analysis

3.4 Nodal & Mesh Analysis by inspection (2)

Exercise 4 By inspection, write the mesh-current equations for the circuit

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49

49

Select the method that results in the smaller number of

equations:

meshes.

or supernodes are more suitable for nodal analysis.

If node voltages are required, it may be convenient to apply

nodal analysis

nodes.

voltage sources, or super meshes are more suitable for mesh

analysis.

If branch or mesh currents are required, it may be better to

use mesh analysis

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50

50

Conversions

Engineering Fundamentals

51

Conversions

Conversion

R1

Wye/Delta

Rc

R2

a

R3

Ra

Rb

c

Wye

Delta

Engineering Fundamentals

52

Conversions

Wye/Delta

Conversion

R1 R2 R1 R3 R2 R3

Ra

R1

R1 R2 R1 R3 R2 R3

Rb

R2

R1 R2 R1 R3 R2 R3

Rc

R3

Engineering Fundamentals

53

Conversions

Delta/Wye

Conversion

Rb Rc

R1

Ra Rb Rc

Ra Rc

R2

Ra Rb Rc

Ra Rb

R3

Ra Rb Rc

Engineering Fundamentals

54

Conversions

Effects of D-Y and Y-D

Conversion

but adds a node.

Y-D Conversion eliminates a node

but adds a loop.

Engineering Fundamentals

55

Conversions

Y/D conversion

Example 1

Find Rab for the circuit

using Y/D conversion

Solution

Several

Methods:

We choose to eliminate

node c, then simplify.

Engineering Fundamentals

56

Y- Conversion

Calculations

20 12 20

30

12 30

Red

100

12

20 12 20

30

12 30

Rdf

60

20

20 12 20

30

12 30

Ref

40

30

Engineering Fundamentals

57

New Circuit

Engineering Fundamentals

58

Further Simplifications

Rab 10

40 80 40

40 80 40

Engineering Fundamentals

20 60

59

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