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Bacterial ClassificationA.

Need for a
classification system
B. Practicality versus
Taxonomy

Why is it important to be able to identify bacteria?

What problems might you face in trying to identify


bacteria?
What strategies might you use to identify bacteria?

Medically Important Bacteria

Bacterial Taxonomy Inherent Challenges


5 kingdoms versus 3 Domains

Fig. 1.14

Universal phylogenetic tree


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17

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Bacteria

The History and Evolution of Bergeys


Manual
1. Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology
(1923-1994)
9 Editions (1 volume each )-These are mainly phenetic
2. Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology:
1s t edition (4volumes);1984-1989; Mix
Phylogenetic/Phenetic-5 Kingdoms
2nd Edition (5 volumes) (2001-2012);Phylogenetic-3
Domains

Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology


First edition-1923 (one volume)
Seventh edition-1957 (one volume)
8th edition-1975 (one volume)
9th edition-1994 (one volume)

Bergeys Manual of Systematic BacteriologyFirst edition -Published in 4 volumes:


Volume 1 (1984) -Gram-negative Bacteria of general,
medical, or industrial importance
Volume 2 (1986) -Gram-positive Bacteria other than
Actinomycetes
Volume 3 (1989) -Archaeobacteria, Cyanobacteria,
and remaining Gram-negative Bacteria
Volume 4 (1989) -Actinomycetes

Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology


Second Edition-published in 5 volumes:
Vol 1-(2001) The Archaea and the deeply branching
and phototrophic Bacteria
Vol 2-(2005)-The Proteobacteria
Vol 3-(2009)- The Firmicutes
Vol 4-(2011)- The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes,
Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres,
Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes,
Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and
Planctomycetes
Vol 5-(2012)- The Actinobacteria

Bergeys Overview Volume 1-Domain


Archae

14

Archaea: The Other Prokaryotes

Constitute third Domain Archaea


More closely related to Eukarya than to Bacteria
Contain unique genetic sequences in their rRNA
Have unique membrane lipids and cell walls

15

Extreme halophiles

Hot springs, home of thermophiles

Bergeys Overview Volume 1 Domain


Bacteria

18

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)


Gram-negative cell walls
Extensive thylakoids with photosynthetic
chlorophyll pigments and gas inclusions
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

20 microns

(a)

(a2)

(a3)

Stromatolite

10 m
(b)

(c)

Thylakoid
membranes
(d)

19

Green Sulfur Bacteria


Photosynthetic
Contain
photosynthetic
pigment
bacteriochlorophyll
Do not give off
oxygen as a product
of photosynthesis
20

Bergeys Overview Volume 2

21

Plague bacteria

bubos

Volume 2-Domain Bacteria-Rickettsia


Obligate intracellular
parasites
Rickettsias
Very tiny, gram-negative
bacteria
Most are pathogens
Nucleus
Obligate intracellular
pathogens
Cannot survive or multiply
outside of a host cell
Rickettsia rickettisii
Rocky Mountain spotted
fever

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Rickettsial cells

Baca and Paretsky, Microbiological Reviews, 47(20);133, fig. 16, June 1983 ASM

Vacuole

24

Rickettsia life cycle

Bergeys Overview Volume 3

26

Clostridial
myonecrosis
(gas gangrene)

Pleomorphic
Mycoplasms

500 nm

Genus Bacillus

Genus
Staphylococcus

Staph
infections

Strep throat

Strep infection
complications

Necrotizing
fasciatus

Bergeys Overview Volume 4

35

Tuberculosis

TB test

leprosy

leprosy

Bergeys Overview Volume 5

40

Fig. 21.23.a

Chalymi
dial eye
infection

Syphilis
bacterium

Syphilis
shankars

Secondary
syphilis

Tertiary
syphilis

Taxonomy-What do I need to know for the Exam?

1. Bergeys Systematic Ed 1-Name of 4 Divisions in


Kingdom Monera (and criterion for those Divisions)
2. Bergeys Systematic 2nd Ed.
A. Names of the 5 volumes and Domains included.
B. Number of phyla and classes in each of the volumes
C. For representative organisms discussed: name of the
organism.Volume, Phylum and class/genus (if
applicable)