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Culture Care and Diversity

A Nursing Theory
By Rabia Chaudhry

Dr. Leininger was the first

professional nurse with a PhD
in anthropology.

She brought nursing and

anthropology together and
came up with the term
transcultural nursing.

Her Culture Care Diversity &

Universality theory was one of
the earliest nursing theories
and it remains the only theory
focused specifically on
transcultural nursing. Her
theory is used worldwide.
(Leininger, 2006)

Description of the theory

The Culture Care Diversity and

Universality theory, according
to Dr. Leininger, focuses on
describing, explaining, and
predicting nursing similarities
and differences. It focuses
primarily on human care and
their culture.

In addition, The Culture Care

Diversity & Universality theory
focuses on methods of
approach that takes care of
patients and their culture.
(Leininger, 2006)


Dr. Leininger developed

her theory, Culture Care Diversity and Universality
from a combination of anthropology & nursing beliefs & principles

1985 she first published her theory in Nursing Science Quarterly

1988 - further explained her theory in same journal

1991 - published her book Culture Care Diversity and Universality: A Theory of

(Leininger, 2006)

Theory applied to nursing

Based on transcultural nursing model:
Transcultural nursing: is a learned branch of nursing that
focuses on the comparative study & analysis of cultures.
They apply these concepts to nursing and health-illness
practices, beliefs, and values.
Goal of Transcultural Nursing: is to provide care that is
congruent with cultural values, beliefs, and practices.
(Leininger, 1999)

Theorys Purpose & Goal

Purpose: to explicate
transcultural nursing
knowledge and practice
Goal: to identify ways to
provide culturally
congruent nursing care to
people of diverse or
similar cultures
(Leininger, 2006)

The Sunrise Enabler

The theory includes an enabler. It serves
as a conceptual guide or cognitive map
to guide nurses in the systematic study of
all dimensions of the theory.
This map or guide is called the Sunrise

(Leininger, 2006)

(Leininger, 2006. pp25)

Applying theory in nursing


Knowledge of cultural diversity is essential

for nurses in order to provide appropriate
care to clients, families, and communities.

It also requires understanding of values,

beliefs, and practices of a clients culture.

Nursing actions must be culture-specific.

Culture Care theory not only focuses on

nurse-client interaction but the focus also
includes care for families, groups,
communities, cultures and institutions.

(Leininger, 1994)

We live in a cities/states that are rich in
diversity, and globalization has
become a fact of life, therefore, it is
essential to value diversity.
Nursing is a transcultural humanistic
profession with the central purpose of
serving individuals, groups,
communities and institutions
If there is evidence of nurturing caring
behaviors with the use of culturespecific care, there will be more signs
of well being and fewer signs of illness.
(Leininger, 2006)

Leininger, M. M.& McFarland, R. M. (2006). Culture care diversity and Universality, A world wide
Nursing theory (2nd ed). (pp1-50). Jones and Bartlette Publishers.
Leininger, M. M. (1994). Nursing Education and International Perspective. Teaching and Learning
Transcultural Nursing. (pp 207-225). Juta & Co, Zebra Publications.
Leininger, M. M.(1999). What is Transcultural Nursing and Culturally Competent Care. J Transcult
Nurs 1999; 10; 9.