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Lecture-4

Diode Circuits

Dr. Imtiaz Hussain

Assistant Professor

email: imtiaz.hussain@faculty.muet.edu.pk

URL :http://imtiazhussainkalwar.weebly.com/

Lecture Outline

Diode With RC

Diode as a Rectifier

In practice, a design engineer frequently needs to calculate tRR and IRR .

This is in order to evaluate the possibility of high frequency switching.

As a thumb rule, the lower tRR the faster the diode can be switched.

Following expression can be used o

calculate the reverse recovery time

be calculated from the area enclosed by

the path of the recovery current.

Reverse Recovery current can be

as

calculated

3

Example-1

The manufacturer of a selected diode gives the

rate of fall of the diode current di/dt=20 A/s, and

its reverse recovery time trr =5s. What value of

peak reverse current do you expect?

SOLUTION. The peak reverse current is

given as:

Example-1

(contd)

Hence,

Example-2

The current waveform passing through a diode

switch in a switch mode power supply application

is shown in following figure. Find the average, rms,

and the peak current.

within a period of 1 ms and with a peak amplitude of 50 A. Hence

the required currents are:

Snubbers

In general, snubbers are used for:

turn-on: to minimise large overcurrents through the device at

turn-on

turn-of: to minimise large overvoltages across the device

during turn-off.

Stress reduction: to shape the device switching waveform such

that the voltage and current associated with the device are not

high simultaneously.

Switches and diodes requires snubbers. However, new generation of

IGBT, MOSFET and IGCT do not require it.

Snubber circuits are essential for diodes used in

switching circuits.

It can save a diode from overvoltage spikes,

which may arise during the reverse recovery

process.

A very common snubber

circuit for a power diode

consists of a capacitor and

a resistor connected in

parallel with the diode as

shown in following figure.

When the reverse recovery current decreases, the

capacitor by virtue of its property will try to hold the

voltage across it, which, approximately, is the voltage

across the diode.

The resistor on the other hand will help to dissipate some

of the energy stored in the inductor, which forms the IRR

loop. The dv/dt across a diode can be calculated as:

manufacturers datasheet. Knowing dv/dt and the RS ,

one can choose the value of the snubber capacitor CS.

The RS can be calculated from the diode reverse

recovery current:

lower than the dv/dt value found from the datasheet.

10

Power Diodes

For specific applications, when the voltage or

current rating of a chosen diode is not enough to

meet the designed rating, diodes can be

connected in series or parallel.

Connecting them in series will give the structure a

high voltage rating that may be necessary for

high-voltage applications.

11

Power Diodes

If a selected diode cannot match the required

current rating, one may connect several diodes in

parallel.

In order to ensure equal current sharing, the

designer must choose diodes with the same

forward voltage drop properties.

12

Following Figure shows a diode with RC load.

When switch S1 is closed at t=0, the charging current

that flows through the capacitor and voltage drop

across it are found from

13

Following Figure shows a diode with RL load.

When switch S1 is closed at t=0, the current

through the inductor is increased

14

The waveform shows when t>>T, the voltage

across inductor tends to be zero and its

current reaches maximum value.

If an attempt is made

to open S1 energy

stored

in

inductor

(=0.5Li2)

will

be

transformed into high

reverse voltage across

diode and switch.

15

Example#3

A diode circuit is shown in figure, with R=44 and

C=0.1F. The capacitor has an initial voltage

Vo=220 v. If S1 is closed at t=0 determine:

Peak Diode Current

Energy Dissipated in resistor

Capacitor voltage at t=2 s

16

Example#3

A diode circuit is shown in figure, with R=44 and

C=0.1F. The capacitor has an initial voltage

Vo=220 v. If S1 is closed at t=0 determine:

Peak Diode Current

17

Example#3

A diode circuit is shown in figure, with R=44 and

C=0.1F. The capacitor has an initial voltage

Vo=220 v. If S1 is closed at t=0 determine:

Capacitor voltage at t=2 s

18

Freewheeling Diode

If switch S1 is closed a current is established through

the load, and then, if the switch is open, a path must

be provided for the current in the inductive load.

connecting a diode Dm,

called a freewheeling

diode.

19

Freewheeling Diode

The circuit operation is divided into two modes.

Mode 1 begins when the switched is closed.

During this mode the current voltage relation is

20

Freewheeling Diode

Mode 2 starts when the S1 is opened and the

load current starts to flow through D m.

21

Freewheeling Diode

The waveform of the entire operation is given

below.

S1 Closed

S1 Open

22

Rectification

Converting AC (from mains or other AC source)

to DC power by using power semiconductor

devices is called rectification.

Two Categories

Uncontrolled Rectifiers

Controlled Rectifiers

23

Properties of an Ideal

Rectifier

It is desired that the rectifier present a

resistive load to the ac power system.

This leads to

Unity power factor

ac line current has same wave shape as

voltage

Vac= 0, RF = 0, TUF = 1, HF = THD = 0, and

PF = PDF = 1.

24

Uncontrolled Rectifiers

In most power Electronic systems, the

power input is in the form of a 50Hz or

60Hz sine wave ac voltage.

The general trend is to use inexpensive

diode rectifiers to convert ac into dc in

an uncontrolled manner.

25

Parameter

Equation

Efficiency ()

Form Factor

Form

(FF) Factor

(FF)

Crest Factor

(CF)

Crest Factor

(CF)

Ripple Factor

(RF)

Ripple Factor

(RF)

26

Parameter

Transformer

Transformer

Utilization

Utilization Factor

Factor

(TUF)

(TUF)

Power

Power Factor

Factor (PF)

(PF)

Peak Inverse Voltage

Peak Inverse Voltage

(PIV)

(PIV)

Total Harmonic

Total Harmonic

Distortion (THD)

Distortion (THD)

Equation

THDi

I S2 I S21

I S21

I S2

I S21

27

The transformer utilization factor (TUF), which is a

measure of the merit of a rectifier circuit, is defined

as the ratio of the dc output power to the

transformer voltampere (VA) rating required by

the secondary winding

current ratings of the secondary transformer.

28

Peak inverse voltage is an important parameter

in the design of rectifiers.

PIV is the maximum voltage that appears

across the diode during its blocking state.

29

This is a measure of the distortion of a waveform,

which characterized the difference between the

total rms ac current ( secondary current I s) and

fundamental component of ac source current (I s1),

which can be defined by decomposing the

secondary current into Fourier series.

THDi

I S2 I S21

I S21

I S2

I S21

therefore HF=0.

30

Uncontrolled Rectifier

A single Phase half wave rectifier is the

simplest type and is not normally used

in industrial or domestic applications.

31

D.C, it is discontinuous and

contains Harmonics.

32

Parameters

Relationships

Voltage

33

Parameters

Current

Relationships

34

pure resistive load of 10. Determine (a) The

efficiency, (b) Form factor (c) Crest Factor (d)

Ripple factor (e) Transformer Utilization Factor (f)

PIV

Solution

Vodc

I odc

Vm

285

90.7V

3.141

Vm

9.07 A

R

Vorms

Vm 285

142.4V

2

2

I orms

Vm

14.25 A

2R

35

Example-4

a) Efficiency

Podc

Vodc I odc

90.7 9.07

100 40.06%

142.4 14.2

(b) Form Factor

Vorms

FF

Vodc

Vm

2

Vm

FF 1.57

2

CF

Vm

285

2

Vorms 142.4

Voac

RF

FF 2 1

Vodc

RF 1.57 2 1 1.211

36

Example-4

transformer employed must have a 3.496 (1/0.286)

VA rating in order to deliver 1W dc output power to

the load.

.

If the transformer rating is 1 KVA (1000VA) then the

half-wave rectifier can deliver 1000 X0.287 = 287

watts to resistance load.

In addition, the transformer secondary winding has to

carry a dc current that may cause magnetic core

saturation.

37

Example-4

Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)

38

Example-4(Conclusion)

Taking into account the obtained rectifier parameters we

conclude that this type of rectifier is characterized with bad

parameters presented by :

1. Low (poor) transform utilization 28.6%, which means

that the transformer must be 1/0.286=3.49 times larger

that when it is used to deliver power from a pure ac

voltage.

2. Low ( poor) rectification efficiency = 40.5%

3. Presence of current dc component in the secondary

current causing additional losses ( winding and core

heating).

4. High ripple factor (1.21), which means that a filter with

large capacitance is required for smoothing the output

voltage, therefore this yield high capacitor starting

39

current problem.

Exercise#1

Adiodewhoseinternalresistanceis20istosupplypow

erto a100loadfrom110V(rms) ac source.Calculate

(a) peak load current (b) the dc load current (c) the rms

load current (d) TUF (e) TUF when Rf=0 (f) Conclusion.

Solution:

Givenahalf-waverectifiercircuitRf=20, RL=100

Given an ac source with rms voltage of 110V

Therefore the maximum amplitude of sinusoidal input

is given by

40

Exercise#1

(b)

(c)

(d) TUF

41

Exercise#1

(e) TUF when

42

Exercise#2

An AC supply of 230V rms is applied to a half wave

rectifier circuit through a transformer of turn ratio

5:1. Assume the diode is an ideal one. The load

resistance is 300.

Find

(b) the dc load current

(c) the rms load current

(d) TUF

(e) PIV

(f) FF

(g) RF

(h) power delivered to load

43

Load

period of the diode D1 will extend beyond 180o until the

current becomes zero at .

The diode will conduct in the negative half cycle for the time

of , therefore the average output voltage decreases due to

load inductance.

44

Load

The average output voltage is given by

45

Load

varies proportionately to [1

- cos(+)].

This

can

be

made

maximum by decreasing

(ideally = 0 ).

We can make = 0 with

the

addition

of

a

freewheeling diode given

byDmas shown with the

dotted line.

46

A full-wave rectifier converts an ac voltage into

apulsating dc voltage using both half cycles of the

applied ac voltage.

In order to rectify both the half cycles of ac input, two

diodes are used in this circuit. Both diodes feed a

common load With the help of acenter-tap

transformer.

A center-tap transformer is the one which produces two

sinusoidal waveforms of same magnitude and

frequency but out of phase with respect to the ground

in the secondary winding of the transformer.

47

Each

half

of

the

transformer with its

associated acts as a

half wave rectifier.

48

Vodc

2V

1

Vm sin t dt m

0

I odc

2 Vm

Vorms

I orms

V

sin

t

m

0

dt

Vm

2

Vm

2 R

49

purely resistive load of R Determine (a) The

efficiency, (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) Crest

Factor (e) TUF (f) PIV

I odc

Vodc

7A

R

Vorms

Vm

77.78V

2

I orms

Vorms

7.77 A

R

2:1

Vm=220v

Vodc

2 Vm 2 110

70.06V

10

50

Example-5

Podc

Vodc I odc

70.06 7

81.05%

Poac Vorms I orms 77.78 7.77

Vorms 77.78

FF

1.11

Vodc

70.06

RF FF 1 1.11 1 0.483

2

51

Example-5

The average TUF in centre-tap full-wave rectifying

circuit is determined by considering the primary and

secondary winding separately.

There

are

twosecondary

windingshere.Each

secondary isassociated with one diode.This isjust

similar

tosecondaryof

half-wave

rectifier.Eachsecondaryhas TUFas 0.287.

52

Exercise-3

A Full-Wave rectifier circuit is fed from a transformer

having a center-tapped secondary winding.The rms

voltage fromendof secondaryto center tapis 30V.if

the diode forward resistance is 5 and that of the

secondary is 10 for a load of900, Calculate:

1. Power delivered to load

2. Ripple Factor

3. Efficiency at full-load

4. TUF

53

Exercise-4

A Full-wave rectifier circuit uses two silicon diodes

with a forward resistance of 20 each. A dc

voltmeter connected across the loadof 1k reads

55.4volts.Calculate

2. Average voltage across each diode

3. Ripple factor

4. Transformer secondary voltage rating

54

Exercise-5

A 230V, 60Hz voltage is applied to the primary of a

5:1 step down, center tapped transformer used in the

Full-wave rectifier having a load of 900.If the diode

resistance

andthe

secondarycoil

resistance

togetherhasa resistance of100.Determine:

2. dc current flowing through the load

3. dc power delivered to the load

4. ripple factor

55

Instead

of

using

centre-tapped

transformer we could

use four diodes.

56

Rectifier

57

Advantages of Bridge rectifier circuit:

No center-tapped transformer is required

The TUF is considerably high

PIV is reduced across the diode.

The only disadvantage of bridge rectifier is the use

of four diodes as compared to two diodes for

center-tapped FWR.

This reduces the output voltage

58

purely resistive load of R=15 ohms and, VS=300 sin t

and unity transformer ratio. Determine (a) The efficiency,

(b) Form factor, (c) Ripple factor, (d) Input power factor.

2V

1

Vdc Vm sin t dt m 190.956 V

0

Vrms

2

Vm sin t dt

0

1/ 2

2 Vm

12.7324 A

R

Vm

212.132 V

2

Pdc

Vdc I dc

81.06 %

Pac Vrms I rms

Vrms

FF

1.11

Vdc

2

2

Vrms

Vdc2

Vac

Vrms

2

RF

FF

1 0.482

2

Vdc

Vdc

Vdc

Input power

factor =

I dc

The

PIV=300V

VS I S cos

Re al Power

1

Apperant Power

VS I S

59

Exercise-6

A bridge rectifier uses four identical diodes having

forward resistance of 5 and the secondary voltage

of 30V (rms). Determinethe dcoutputvoltage

forIDC=200mA and the value of the ripple voltage.

60

Exercise-7

In a bridge rectifier the transformer is connected to

220V, 60Hz mains and the turns ratio of the step

down transformer is 11:1.Assuming thediode to be

ideal, find:

1. Idc

2. voltage across the load

3. PIV assume load resistance to be 1k

61

4 wires

3 active phases, A, B, C

1 ground, or neutral

Color Code

Phase A Red

Phase B Black

Phase C Blue

Neutral White or Gray

Average

output voltage for one pulse (120 o or )

is given as

5 / 6

3

Vdc

2

3 3 Vm

/ 6Vm sin t dt 2 0.827Vm

3 3 Vm 0.827 Vm

I dc

2 R

R

5 / 6

is given as

3

2

Vm sin t dt

Vrms

2 / 6

I rms

1 3 3

Vm 0.8407 Vm

2 8

0.8407 Vm

PIVofDiode

3 V is given as

m

64

figure is operated from 460 V 50 Hz rms supply

at secondary side and the load resistance is

R=20 . If the source inductance is negligible,

determine (a) Rectification efficiency, (b) Form

factor (c) Ripple factor (d) Crest Factor (e) Peak

inverse voltage (PIV) of each diode.

65

Example-7

460

VS

265.58 V

3

Vm 265.58 2 375.59 V

Vdc

3 3 Vm

0.827 Vm 310.6V

2

3 3 Vm 0827 Vm

I dc

15.5 A

2 R

R

66

Example-7

I rms

0.8407 Vm

15.77 A

R

Pdc

Vdc I dc

Vdc I dc

310.6 15.5

96.7 %

Vrms I rms 315.5 15.77

67

Example-7

Vrms 315.5

FF

1.01

Vdc 310.6

RF FF 2 1 0.18

Vm 375.59

CF

1.19

Vrms

315.5

(e) PIV

PIV 3 Vm 650.54V

68

Three Phase bridge rectifier

is very common in high

power applications because

they

have

the

highest

possible

transformer

utilization factor for a threephase system.

It can operate with or

without transformer and give

six-pulse ripple on the out.

Diodes D1, D3, D5 will conduct

when the supply voltage is

most positive.

when the supply voltage is

most negative.

69

1 cycle

conduction of diode D5 stops and that of D1 begins. The

magnitude of load voltage at instant 1 is then given by

given by

is

70

71

Average

output voltage for one pulse (60 o or ) is

given as

2 / 3

6

Vdc

2

/3

3 3 Vm

3Vm sin t dt

1.654Vm

3 3 Vm 1.654 Vm

I dc

R

R

2 / 3

is given as

2

6

3 9 3

Vrms

3Vm sin t dt

Vm 1.655 Vm

2 / 3

2 4

I rms

1.655 Vm

PIVofDiode

3 V is given as

m

72

from 460 V 50 Hz supply and the load resistance is

R=20ohms. If the source inductance is negligible,

determine (a) The efficiency, (b) Form factor (c)

Ripple factor (d) Crest Factor (e) Peak inverse voltage

(PIV) of each diode .

Vdc

I dc

3 3 Vm

1.654Vm 621.226 V

3 3 Vm 1.654Vm

31.0613 A

R

R

Vrms

3 9 3

Vm 1.6554 Vm 621.752 V

2

4

I rms

1.6554 Vm

31.0876 A

R

Example-8

Pdc

Vdc I dc

99.83 %

Pac Vrms I rms

(b) Form factor

Vrms

FF

1.00084

Vdc

(c) Ripple factor

RF FF 2 1 0.04

(d) Crest Factor

3Vm 650.55

CF

1.04

Vrms

621.75

3 Vm 650.54

Single

Phase

Half

Wave

Rectifi

er

Single

Phase

full

Wave

(Centre

Tap)

Single

phase

full

Wave

(Bridge

)

3

Phase

Star

Rectifi

er

3

Phase

Bridge

Rectifi

er

Efficiency

(%)

40.5

81

81

96.7

99.83

Form

Factor

1.57

1.11

1.11

1.01

Ripple

Factor

1.21

0.48

0.48

0.18

0.04

TUF (%)

28.6

69.3

81.2

66.42

95.42

Performa

nce

Paramete

rs

PIV

75

http://imtiazhussainkalwar.weebly.com/

END OF LECTURE-4

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