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PRESENTED BY:
MUHAMMAD INZIAAM UL HAQ
2013-ag-4723
(Environmental Engineering)
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Pakistan

PRESENTATION TOPIC:
CONCRETE

CONTENTS
Introduction
Characteristics
Classification
Uses

CONCRETE
Mixture of cement, sand, bricks or stone
ballast and water

Mixing

Raw Material

Concrete

REINFORCED CONCRETE
Concrete that is strengthened with steel bars or wire
netting is called as reinforced concrete

CHARACTERISTICS
High compressive strength
Minimum shrinkage
Adequately dense
Economical
Resistive to abrasion
Adequately resistive to weathering
agencies
Minimum thermal expansion
Sufficient impermeability
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CLASSIFICATION
Binding material
Design
Purpose

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON BINDING


MATERIAL
Cement Concrete

Lime Concrete

CEMENT CONCRETE
Binding material is cement
Sand is used as fine aggregate
Broken bricks & crushed stones are
used as coarse aggregate
Proportions of ingredients are as follows
Portland cement
1 part
Clean sand
1.5 to 8
parts
Coarse aggregate
3 to 16
parts
Density should be 23kN/m3
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Uses
Retaining walls
Roofing
Flooring
Foundations engineering structures
Stairs
Ornamental moulding

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LIME CONCRETE
Binding material is lime
Sand & cinder used as fine aggregate
Broken bricks & crushed stones are used as coarse
aggregate
Proportions of ingredients are as follows
Lime
1 part
Clean sand
2 to 3 parts
Coarse aggregate
3 to 4 parts
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Uses
Foundation bases
Under layers of floors
Filling haunches
Terrace finishing

Precautions
Causes rashes
Wear rubber gloves
Apply oil on skin
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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON DESIGN


Plain Cement Concrete
Reinforced Cement
Concrete
Pre-stressed Cement
Concrete

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PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE


Without reinforcement
Stronger in compression
Weak in tension

USES
Bed blocks
Massive gravity dams
Heavy foundations
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REINFORCED CEMENT
CONCRETE
Reinforcement is done
Proportions are as follows

Portland cement
Clean sand
Crushed stones

1 part
1 to 2 parts
2 to 4 parts

USES
Beams
Slabs
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PRE-STRESSED CEMENT
CONCRETE
High compressive stresses are induced artificially
High tensile steel is used
Cracks are difficult to produce

USES
To overcome high stress

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON DESIGN


Light weight concrete
Aerated Concrete
Sawdust Concrete
Vacuum Concrete
White & coloured Concrete
No-fines Concrete
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LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE


Prepared by
Ordinary Portland cement
Light weight rocks
Light weight steel
Pure drinking water

Advantages
Greater fire resistant
Less thermal expansion
Local industrial waste can be used
cost reduces to 30-40%
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AERATED CONCRETE
Aluminum is added
Hydrogen bubbles form cells in concrete
Spongy in structure

USES
Roof slabs
Precast units

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SAWDUST CONCRETE
Sawdust is mixed with cement
Expands when becomes wet
Contracts when dry

USES
Heat insulation
Sound insulation

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VACUUM CONCRETE
Excess Air & water is removed
Water-cement ratio is reduced
20% stronger than ordinary concrete

USES
Reinforced concrete works

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WHITE & COLOURED


CONCRETE
White cement is used
Colored cement is used
Colored aggregates are used

USES
Ornamental finishing
Park lanes
Underground pedestrian crossing
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NO-FINES CONCRETE
Sand is absent
Advantages
Drying shrinkage is low
Saving of cement
Ca be used as light weight concrete

Disadvantages
Bond strength is low
Compressive strength is low
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THANK YOU
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