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MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, JAIPUR

HYDRO DE-ALKYLATION
Submitted by
P.BHAVANI SHANKAR
2013UCE1641

Submitted to
SHIV OM MEENA
Assistant professor
Chemical Engineering
Department

HYDRO DE-ALKYLATION

Hydro de-alkylation is a chemical reaction that often


involves reacting an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as
toluene, in the presence of hydrogen gas to form a simpler
aromatic hydrocarbon devoid of functional groups. An
example is the conversion of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene to
xylene. This chemical process usually occurs at high
temperature, at high pressure, or in the presence of a
catalyst. These are predominantly transition metals, such
as chromium or molybdenum.

Toluene hydro dealkylation converts toluene to


benzene. In this hydrogen-intensive process,
toluene is mixed with hydrogen, then passed over a
chromium, molybdenum, or platinum oxide catalyst
at 500600 C and 4060 atm pressure. Sometimes,
higher temperatures are used instead of a catalyst
(at the similar reaction condition). Under these
conditions, toluene undergoes de-alkylation to
benzene and methane.

A typical reaction yield exceeds 95%. Sometimes, xylenes


and heavier aromatics are used in place of toluene, with
similar efficiency.

This is often called "on-purpose" methodology to produce


benzene, compared to conventional BTX (benzene-toluenexylene) extraction processes. Process flow diagram given
below:

The HAD process begins with mixing fresh toluene


with a stream of recycle unreacted toluene , the
mixing is achieved in a storage tank. The toluene is
then pumped to combine it with a stream of mixed
hydrogen and fresh hydrogen gas. The mixture of
hydrogen and toluene is preheated before it is
introduced to the heater or furnace. In the furnace the
stream is heated to 600 c , the reaction temperature ,
then introduced into the reactor . The reactor is where
the main reaction happens:

The reaction is irreversible , and it requires catalyst. The catalyst


consists of chromium or molybdenum oxides, platinum or
platinum oxides, silica or alumina. Another minor reversible side
reaction is often observed:

The feed pre-heater increases the temperature of the reactants


at the desired pressure.

After the reaction, the reactor products are cooled using heat
integration concept by exchanging heat with the cold feed
stream. Further cooling of the stream is carried out using a water
based cooler.

The stream enters a phase separation unit where the fuel gas
components such as H2 and CH4 are removed as vapour stream.
The liquid stream consists of H2, CH4, Light ends, Benzene,
Toluene, Diphenyl and other higher order aromatics.

The vapour stream is partially purged and to a large extent


recycled as the stream has good amount of H2. The gas phase
purge stream is for controlling the concentration of methane in
the reactor.

The liquid stream enters a gas stripper which removes the light
ends as a gaseous product stream from the top tray. The bottom
product is then sent to a fractionator.

The fractionator separates benzene from all heavy ends. The


heavy end product consisting of unreacted toluene, diphenyl etc.
is largely sent back to the reactor by allowing mixing with the
fresh feed.

The catalytic process occurs at lower temperatures and


offers higher selectivity but requires frequent regeneration
of the catalyst. The products are then cooled and
introduced into a pair of separators that separate the
unreacted hydrogen. Portion of the unreacted hydrogen is
compressed and recycle back to the feed and the reactor.
The products leaving the separators are then heated before
being introduced into a distillation column, where toluene
is separated from the stream and recycle to the feed. This
allow for greater conversion. Then further fractionation
separates methane and toluene from the benzene product.
The heating requirements are achieved with low, high and
medium pressure steam. The cooling requirements are
achieve by cooling water at temperature of 30 C and
pressure of 1 bar.

Hydrodealkytion of Toluene
C1

SP2

Recycle Hydrogen

S14

S12

S13

S20
S15

S22

S11
M5

Fuel Gas

M6
S16

SP1

S17

Hydrogen

S25

M2

S7
M4

S9

S18

R1

S6

S8

M3
S3

S4
SC2
S28

S5

E1

S2

E2

E5

S23

S1

T oluene

S26

F1
S10

M1

S27

P1

F2

E4
S19

S21
E3
SC1

S24

Toluene Recycle

PFD for the toluene hydrodealkylation process

Benzene

Input streams for HDA

Inputs
Stream: S1

Stream: S17

Molar Rate: 108.7 kmol/hr

Molar Rate: 301.0 kmol/hr

Temperature: 25 C

Temperature: 25 C

Pressure: 1.9 bar

Pressure: 25.5 bar

Molar Composition: 1.00 Toluene

Molar Composition: 0.95H2


0.05 CH4

Output streams for HDA process


Outputs
Stream: S22

Stream: S27

Molar Rate: 304.1 kmol/hr

Molar Rate: 105.6 kmol/hr

Temperature: 35.7 C

Temperature: 38 C

Pressure: 2.5 bar

Pressure: 2.955 bar

Molar Composition: 0.001 C7H8

Molar Composition: 0.004 C7H8

0.587 H2

0.996 C6H6

0.403 CH4
0.009 C6H6

THANK YOU