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The word entrepreneur has been taken from the French language
where it cradled and originally meant to designate an organizer of
musical or other entertainments.
Oxford English Dictionary (in 1987) : the director or a manager of
a public musical institution, one who gets-up entertainment,
especially musical performance.
In the early 16th century, it was applied to those who were engaged
in military expeditions. It was extended to cover civil engineering
activities such as construction and fortification in the 17th century.

It was only in the beginning of the 18th that the world was used
refer to economic aspects. In this way, the evolution of the concept
of entrepreneur is considered over more than four centuries.
These views are broadly classified into three groups, namely,
risk-bearer, organizer and innovator.

1) Entrepreneur as a Risk-Bearer : Richard Cantillon: He

defined entrepreneur as an agent who buys factors of production at
certain prices in order to combine them into a product with a view to
selling it at uncertain prices in future.

2) Entrepreneur as an Organizer: Jean-Baptiste : According to him,

an entrepreneur is one who combines the land of one, the labour of
another and the capital of yet another, and, thus, produces a product.
By selling the product in the market, he pays interest on capital, rent
on land and wages to labourers and what remains is his/her profit.

3) Entrepreneur as an Innovator : Joseph A. Schumpeter : The

introduction of new combination of factors of production, according
to him, may occur in anyone of the following five forms:
1)The introduction of a new product in the market.
2)The instituting of a new production technology which is not yet
tested by experience in the branch of manufacture concerned.
3)The opening of a new market into which the specific product has
not previously entered.
4)The discovery of a new source of supply of raw material.
5)The carrying out of the new form of organization of any industry
by creating of a monopoly position or the breaking up of if.

1)Hard Work
2)Desire for High Achievement
3)Highly Optimistic
6)Good Organizer
7) Innovative

1)Idea generation
2)Determination of objectives
3)Raising of funds
4)Procurement of raw materials
5)Procurement of machinery
(a) The details of technology
(b) Installed capacity of the machines
(c) Names of the manufacturers and suppliers
(d) Whether the machines are indigenously made or foreign made
(e) After-sales service facilities
(f) Warranty period of the machineries

6) Market research
7) Determination of form of enterprise
8) Recruitment of manpower
(a) Estimating manpower need of the organization
(b) Laying down of selection procedure
(c) Devising scheme of compensation
(d) Laying down the rules of training and development
9) Implementation of the project

1)Innovating Entrepreneurs
2)Imitative Entrepreneurs
3)Fabian Entrepreneurs
4)Drone Entrepreneurs

Distinctive between managers and the Entrepreneur





The main motive of an entrepreneur But, the main motive of a manager

is to start a venture by setting up an is to render his services in an



the enterprise

venture for his personal gratification.






someone else.

An entrepreneur is the owner of the A manager is the servant in the






Risk-bearing An entrepreneur being the owner of A manager as a servant does not
the enterprise assumes all risks and bear any risk involved in the
uncertainty involved in running the enterprise.


The reward an entrepreneur

gets for bearing risks
involved in the enterprise is
profit which is highly

A manager gets salary as

reward for the services'
rendered by him in the
manager is certain and fixed.


Entrepreneur himself thinks

over what and how to
produce goods to meet the
changing demands of the
customers. Hence, he acts as
an innovator also called a
'change- agent'.

But, what a manager does is

simply to execute the plans
manager simply translates
the entrepreneur's ideas into

a)Promotes Capital Formation
b)Creates Large-Scale Employment Opportunities
c)Promotes Balanced Regional Development
d)Reduces Concentration of Economic Power
e)Wealth Creation and Distribution
f)Improvement in the Standard of Living
g)Promotes Country's Export Trade
h)Facilitates Overall Development

Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship

a) The Person: Personality, Skills, Experience, Motives, and

Psychological preferences.

b) The Task: Perceiving opportunity, marshalling resources,

providing leadership.
c) The Environment: Availability of resources, infrastructure,
competitive pressures, social values, rules and regulations, state of
technology, etc.
d) The Organization: Structure, rules, policies, culture, human
resource systems, communication systems.

According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is one who perceives
the opportunities to innovate, i.e. to carry out new combinations
or enterprise. Innovation involves problem solving and the
entrepreneur is a problem solver. In his views, the concept of
new combination leading to innovation covers the following five

The introduction of new goods that is the one with which

consumers are not yet familiar, of a new quality.
The introduction of new method of production, that is yet to be
tested by experience in the branch of manufacture concerned
which need, by no means, to be founded upon a scientifically new
discovery and can also exist in a new way of handling a
commodity commercially.
The opening of a new market that is a market into which the
particular branch of manufacture of the country in question has
not previously entered, whether or not this market has existed

The conquest of a new source of supply of a raw material or

semi-manufactured goods, again irrespective of whether this
source already exists or whether it has first to be created.
The carrying out of the new organization, of any industry like the
creation of monopoly position through fructification or breaking
up of a monopoly position.

Schumpeterian theory of entrepreneurship has

got the following features:
1. Distinction between invention and innovation: Schumpeter
makes a distinction between innovation and invention.
Invention means creation of new things and innovation means
application of new things into practical use.
An inventor is the producer or creator of ideas whereas the
innovator implements these ideas.
An innovator is the entrepreneur who converts these ideas into
commercially-viable projects. Thus, an innovator always stands a
step further than the inventor in exploiting the new ideas

2. Emphasis on entrepreneurial functions: Thus, one of the most

important functions of an entrepreneur is to mobilize such
resources which are known as 5 Ms in modern management, i.e.
Man, Material, Money, Machine and Method, etc. can be
properly coordinated by the entrepreneur to maximize profit from
his own venture thereby leading to economic growth.






entrepreneurial activity: "While he swims with the stream in the

circular flow which is familiar to him, he swims against stream if
he wishes to change its channel. This is why carrying out new
combinations is an object of special kind of function.

4. Characteristic motives of the entrepreneurial conduct: In his

theory, Schumpeter deals with the question of characteristic
motives of entrepreneurial conduct. Although he tries to
indicate the psychology of entrepreneur, he believes that none of
the results to which our analysis is intended to lead stands or falls
with psychology of entrepreneur.
5. Entrepreneurial dream and the will to found a private
Entrepreneurial motives are governed by the will power to
conquer for establishing private kingdom.

According to Schumpeter, "Dream and the will to found a

private kingdom, will to conquer .

Schumpeter's theory of entrepreneurship is

criticized on the following grounds
The theory has broadened the scope of entrepreneurism in the
sense that it has included the individual businessman along with
the directors and managers of company who actually carry out
new combinations known as innovative functions. It is





successful business enterprise but lacks innovation


Entrepreneur represents the enterprise with R&D and innovative

character. But developing countries lack these types of
Schumpeterian theory of entrepreneurship gives too much
emphasis on innovation.
Entrepreneurs are large scale businessmen who introduce new
technology, methods of production, etc. But in underdeveloped
countries entrepreneurs who start their business generally do
not have a large scale business enterprise in the beginning.
Further, they also prefer to operate on traditional technology.

Walker on entrepreneurship
According to Walker, entrepreneur is a person who organizes and
coordinates the various agents of production.

He points out that the true entrepreneur is one who is in

possession of above average ability for organizing and
coordinating the resources.

But in a country, the supply of 'true entrepreneur' is limited.

Entrepreneurs are endowed with different levels of organizational

skill and coordinating capacity.

Thus entrepreneurs with higher level of competency are more

successful and effective in earning superior rewards in terms of
profit in comparison to their counterpart.

Drucker on entrepreneurship
Peter F. Drucker opined that "an entrepreneur is one who always
searches for change, responds to it and exploits it as an

He laid emphasis on two important factors-innovation and

resource-that led to emergence of entrepreneurship .

According to him, innovation is the real hub of entrepreneurship

which creates resource. A thing is regarded as resource when its
economic value is recognized.

For example, mineral oil was considered worthless until the

discovery of its use.

1. Period I: Entrepreneurship in Ancient period
2. Period II: Entrepreneurship in pre-Independence era, i.e. before
3. Period III: Entrepreneurship between 1850-1947
4. Period

IV: Entrepreneurship

Independence period





Period I: Entrepreneurship in Ancient period

Ancient literature like Manusmriti has provided a clear idea about
entrepreneurial class of people during ancient period (pre-Vedic).

According to Manusmriti, "people belonging to Vaisya caste were

regarded as entrepreneurs who are specialized to maintain
livestock, to give charity, perform sacrifices, study scriptures,
and undertake business and banking." They carried on trade in
agriculture, industry and banking sectors.

Agriculture, crafts and handicrafts were the basic sources of the

occupation for the people in Gupta and post-Gupta period.

There is clear evidence about the use of technical knowledge in

water use namely, Persian water (Arahatta) in Northern India
during the early medieval period. With introduction of
entrepreneurship, the towns and cities developed.

Period II: Entrepreneurship in pre-Independence

era, i.e. before 1850
During pre-Independence era, agriculture was the main-stay of
the people of India.

It is said that besides agriculture, a class of businessmen

specialized in manufacturing of handicrafts, metal works, stone
carving and jewellery designing, etc. had dominated the
industrial entrepreneurship sector in rural areas.

Those communities were known as Banias (Hindu and Jain),

Parsis, Chheriars and Gujaratis, etc. These communities actually
laid the foundation of entrepreneurship by carrying on trade and
commerce at initial stage and later they started establishing
manufacturing centers.
These centers were located either near river banks or near ports
for ease of transportation. The following types of industries were
found in those period.
(i) Cottage industries manufacturing woodcraft items, jewelers
designing, stone carvings, ironworks, etc.
(ii) Village industries comprising handloom and textile production,
brass and bell metalworks developed in clusters

The following reasons are attributed to the slow growth of

entrepreneurship in India during this period
The enterprises were not given proper protection by the British
Only those industries in which the British Government put their
own capital were given encouragement.
The railway freight charges were higher for locations not nearer
to the ports.
The British imposed exorbitant tariffs on India-made goods.

Entrepreneurs were constantly harassed for getting licenses and

finance to establish and run industries.
There were almost no facilities for technical education which
alone could strengthen Indian industrial entrepreneurship.
The Indian indigenous entrepreneurs faced fierce competition
from machine-made goods exported to India.
Lack of transportation and communication facilities acted as the
stumbling block in the way of industrial growth.
The British Government did not encourage the establishment of
heavy industries like heavy machinery, iron and steel which are
necessary for rapid industrialization.

In spite of the above problems, the export trade of textile in 17th

century was on ascending trend. During this period, grouping of
Indian merchants into joint-stock associations for the purpose of
managing the supply of textiles to the European companies was
very significant.

Period III: Entrepreneurship between 1850-1947

The mid-nineteenth century opened up the path for rapid
industrialization. With the introduction of railways in 1853 in the
country, the scope of industrial entrepreneurship had gone up.
Britishers started harnessing the natural resources of India to
their own advantage simultaneously developing the roads,
railways ports and other infrastructural facilities.
In course of time, Britishers along with mercantile class of India
have built a conducive atmosphere for investment of trading as
well as manufacturing activity.

However, during 1850-1947, entrepreneurship in India

can be analyzed in the following manners:
Entrepreneurship in eastern part of the country
Entrepreneurship in western part of the country

In eastern part of India, the entrepreneurship was mainly

European who engaged in export-oriented industries like jute,
textiles, tea, coal, etc.
But the entrepreneurship in western part of India was mostly
among the Indians. However, Indian history indicates that Indian
traders had trade relations with Greece, Yemen and other
Arabian and African countries.

Emergence of Parsis as Entrepreneurs

The Parsis were greatly influenced by the East India Company.

During this period, Parsis established a good rapport with East

India Company. They acted as brokers, suppliers of commodities
and craftsmen in ship-building industry. Parsis built vessels for
the company.

In 1852, a Parsi foreman of a gun factory belonging to the

company established a steel industry in Bombay. All the above
examples prove that the starting point of manufacturing
entrepreneurship laid with emerging entrepreneurial talents among
the Parsis in the country.

In 1905, Indian leaders adopted concept of Swadeshi and boycott










The swadeshi method was based on atmashakti (the principle of

self-reliance) which meant manufacturing and using indigenous
goods by the Indians.

The basic objectives of the Swadeshi Movement were

the following:
(a)To promote indigenous industries by the Indian entrepreneurs
(b) To rejuvenate the cottage and handicraft sector
(c) To provide employment opportunities to the craftsmen of India
(d) To open up a vast captive market for sale of products
manufactured indigenously through a network of swadeshi stores

Indian entrepreneurs were given the opportunities to produce

more during the First World War because of the following two
(i) Increase in demand for India-made goods
(ii) Reduction of import of goods from Britain

IV: Entrepreneurship in 1947 and onwards-postIndependence period

During post-Independence period, Marwaris emerged as big
investors and industrialists from the status of petty shopkeepers
and moneylenders.
The first Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) was announced in
1948 which provided clear-cut guidelines for industrial and
entrepreneurial development.
Marwaris had developed a lot in building new and small
enterprises in the beginning of post-Independence era.

It is believed that 60 per cent of the assets of the Indian

industries was in the hands of the Marwaris.

After Independence, the Birla group set up the rayon mill at

Gwalior which had been the largest mill of its kind till 1964.

In 1964, the Bajaj group laid the foundation of Hind Lamps and
in 1949 Dalmia group established a cement factory in Orissa.

Before Independence, the Marwaris controlled only 6 companies;

but after Independence, they had 618 directorships which rose to
one-fourth of the total in 1951.

Emergence of new entrepreneurial class and the growth of

entrepreneurs can be attributed to the following aspects:
Establishment of institutional support system such as promotional
agencies and financial support agencies .

Panchayati Raj institutions for village development

Nationalization of commercial banks in 1969 for the purpose of

nation building Development of money market and capital market

Formation of specialized institutions like NSIC, KYIB, KYIC,

SISI, TCOs, SFCs, etc.
Establishment of entrepreneurial development institutions at both
national and state levels such as NIESBUD, NISIET, EDII and
IEDs and CEDs respectively.