Rotary Wing Transportation System Alternative Supply for Steep Mountain Range at Papua

R. Didin KUSDIAN Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering Sangga Buana YPKP University Bandung, Indonesia Email: ddnkusdian@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
‡ This document is prepared in accordance with the format requirements of APTE conference proceedings. The 7th APTE Conference Proceedings will be prepared from camera-ready manuscripts received from authors. This manual of instruction is typed in the format that authors should use for the preparation of manuscripts. All authors should carefully follow the instructions given below, and proofread all pages in order to ensure high quality reproduction in the Conference Proceedings. The abstract shall contain not more than 250 words and maximum 5 keywords.

INTRODUCTION
‡ The function of transport is including development of civilization, economic role, social role, and political role. Transport as a system or in total term will, therefore, be considered, not in any abstract sense but as a tangible service to the community (Faulks, 1992). There is always need one or more reason to develop or improve the transport system of the region, but in reality it is not always easy to find a complete or perfect set of reason. For example if the economic scheme is must be the main or important reason, it will be difficult for some region to improve community s quality of life by improve it transport system. This case especially will happen in left behind region of development country. These region usually has little amount of population, but still has equally important in political and social view as a part of country and nation, and as entity of human life for each people in population.

GEOGRAPHIC AND DEMOGRAPHY CONDITION OF STUDY AREA
‡ The study area means in this case is a part of the province of Papua, Indonesia which take a place in the middle of it. The geographic condition of it is mountain range. Because of this geographic condition in Indonesian it call Wilayah Pegunungan Tengah , means Middle Mountain Region . Furthermore, it can be tell that this area in only not mountain area, but steep mountain area. This steep condition of this mountain range is special extreme characteristic of this study area topographic condition which strongly influence to the reliability, workability, or at least level of difficulty of planning, survey, design, and, construction of surface transportation, including it cost. Beside that, in this area there is mapped an important forest conservation area, called Taman Nasional Laurenz . Again this reality make more dilemmatic situation for planning decision of surface transportation. Even this area can be tell as a difficult environmental for human life, but in reality people life in wide spread of this mountain range. According to Indonesia s constitution all of citizen life anywhere in Indonesia each has same or equal knit of quality of live improvement.

‡ ‡

REGION AND AREA AUTONOMY EXPANSION
‡ The disparity of quality of live is still the serious problem that will be a continuous home work for transport planner. In the other hand the wide range of Indonesia as one state and nation make special difficulty in develop all region and area to be more comfortable for human life. With the principle back round to make nearer, easy, more effective and more efficient the public service, The state of Indonesia run autonomy regulation. In autonomy era there are 33 (thirty tree) provinces, and beginning in 2000 province of Irian Barat expanded to be two provinces, Papua and West Papua. ‡ ‡ The expanding of provinces follows by the expanding of regencies and cities. This happened too for province of Papua. This regency administrative division illustrated in figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1 Regency Administrative Division of Study Area Source :Study of Integrated Transportation Network Development of Middle mountain Range, Papua Province

REGION AND AREA AUTONOMY EXPANSION
‡ The next step to reach the goal in develop all regencies is develop the transportation system. This development must be considered and analyzed carefully, following the limits of we called sustainable development . Minimum targets or standards and maximum limits or threshold relevant in such analysis can be categorized as: 1) standards of living or human needs satisfaction; 2) environmental limits of natural resource capacities and standards of pollution or contamination; 3) ecological limits of the carrying capacity of bio productive systems or vulnerable lands for sustaining human populations in a particular territory; 4) standards of equity in the interpersonal, -regional and generational distribution of income and wealth, access to natural resources, and the distribution of environmental costs and benefits; and 5) other cultural, political, social or demographic standards or targets (Bartelmus, 1994) ‡

TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM FOR MIDDLE MOUNTAIN RANGE AREA OF PAPUA
‡ The people of middle mountain range of Papua live in their village which spatially scattered in long distance with another village. They live in long history of their own civilization. The world (mean the planner view or development analyst) must be careful to set their goal in development program, for example if the external world say that the goal is to raise the people to avoid from poverty, they may be refuse because in their mind they do not have a feel that they are poor people. They have their own civilization and local wisdom. This is only o problem of view. During president Soeharto s era, the government of Republic of Indonesia has developed the road line from Jayapura as province capital to Wamena as the center city of middle mountain range. As the main idea or concept of this program is to draw the people which live around mountain top down to road line side and hoped their social and economic be growth at around the road trace as the beginning. The road it self was completely has constructed, but the people have not move down, they still live in their own historical place from long generations before, around mountain. They think that they do not need road, and there is no problem with this in their view. So then the road is no used and many kinds of plants sprout up over it, again.

‡ ‡

TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM FOR MIDDLE MOUNTAIN RANGE AREA OF PAPUA
‡ Now in reformation and autonomy era the new approach as a concept to develop the middle mountain range region of Papua is to set the infrastructure near to the people. The infrastructure must be developed in order to make the basic important public service as healthy and education service can be straightly and wide spread touch the people in equitable and spread through the region. ‡

TRANPORTATION DEMAND ESTIMATE
‡ To estimate the transportation demand of middle mountain of Papua region, this study used the four-step method approach. The prior people and freight movement matrix data used is the results of national OriginDestination (O-D) survey held at 2006. In trip generation step this study found synthetic formula by regress O-D data series versus population data series of six regencies.

Table 5.1 Population versus People O-D datas for 2006 AREA POPULATION Dd (Km2) (people) Oi [people] [people] 5516.00 35549.00 3059 20708 1955.00 9957 13673 23621.00 1201.00 57909.00 14507 5774 210.55 31590.00 2573 6433 888.00 47952.00 11814 5123 1106.00 56867.00 12852 12852

REGENCY/CITY Pegunungan Bintang Yahukimo Jayawijaya Tolikara Puncak Jaya Paniai

‡ For people movement the data shown in table 5.1. and synthetic trip generation formula as a result of regression model is expressed by formula (1) for production and formula (2) for attraction. For freight movement is shown by table 5.2 , formula (3) and formula (4).

‡ Oi = 0.234991771 p (1) ‡ Dd = 0.175920835 p (2)

‡ ‡ Where Oi is people production going movement from zone i, Dd is people attraction coming movement to zone d, and p is population for related year. Future Oi and Dd in future year can determine by these formulas if future population has estimated before by used growth factor derived and adopted from population data series.

Ta le 5.2 o

latio vers s Freigt AREA ( m2) 5516.00 1955.00 1201.00 210.55 888.00 1106.00

-

atas for 2006 ATI ( eo le) 35549.00 23621.00 57909.00 31590.00 47952.00 56867.00

/ ITY Pegunungan intang ahukimo Jaya i aya Tolikara Puncak Jaya Paniai

i [to ] 23779 71475 66788 19829 61486 48906

[to ] 24363 71276 72749 21181 58689 52866

Oi = 0.234991771 p (3) Dd = 0.175920835 p (4) ‡ ‡ In this case Oi and Dd is according with freight movement, and future freight movement can be estimate with the same method with future people movement describe above.

Equati t ab ve as derived fr six re e cies data, t ere are f r e unugan intang, a uki , likara, uncak Ja a anad aniai. en it applied t deter ine anot er regencies ich Ja apura, appear as ne expanded regencies after . In this stud anal sis there are zones in the s ste , including external zone and internal iddle ountain range area zones. he external zone are Ja apura, Nabire, i ika, Agats, anah Merah, and Merauke. And the iddle aountain range area are egunungan intang, ahuki o, Ja a i a a, Lanni Ja a, Nduga, olikara, uncak Ja a, uncak, aniai, Dogiai, Me bra o engah, ali o, Intan Ja a. With used s nthetic ethod the production ove ents and attraction ove ents of all zones can be deter ined from those population data. o estimate the future O-D matrix this stud used unconstrained-gravit model, that described ). formula ( amin, ith

Tid ! Oi ™ Ai ™ B d ™ Dd ™ f (Cid )
Where

( )

Ai ! for all i, and Bd !

for all d

Each-other istances of these zones eri e an from UT C -GPS ata system resulte in the resume as istances matri , see Ta le 5.3. istance is a o te as a cost element, cost matri of these zones in this stu y is use negati e e onential cost function hich escri e y formula 6.
i
¢

f(

Parameter F cali rate ith use linear regression metho , the ata calculate are istance matri , an rior - matri . Prior matri use here is the ata from rimary sur ey hel in 2006 com ine ith - for ne regencies etermine ith formula 4 an 5 from o ulation ata for the same year. The result of cost function cali ration is F ! 0 .000202692 . ith this arameter alue the µe [- F i matri ¶ can e etermine from istance matri , as istance a o te as a tra el cost. Person an freight tra el eman estimating is one in this stu y for the year of 2012, 2017, 2022, an 2027. In this a er the results is sho n here only for the year of 2017. See Ta le 5.4 an 5.5.
£

 ¡ i

) ! e F

(6)

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM SUPPLY ALTERNATIVE
‡ From deeper analysis about 2006 O-D survey results it can determine that 80% of person and movements in Papua is by air transportation, especially by fixed wing aircraft. Fixed wing aircraft always need sufficient runway dimension according to aircraft type, the bigger capacity of it the more length of runway must be developed. The enough fixed wing runway developed for all 13 internal zones of middle mountain range of Papua, the infrastructure investment cost will be expensive. As discussed above, the development of surface transport network will expensive cost also, because of very steep condition of this mountain range topographic condition. ‡ ‡ The alternative solution of above problem want to offer in this paper is took a principle in reduce runways development cost with develop helipad network. Helipad need least land area, this can reduce land acquisition cost, environmental cost, and social cost (along land acquisition process). Environmental cost saving can received especially in avoid conservation forest area damage.

Table 5.3 ista ces

atrix [ kil

ra

erah

Jaya ijaya

ga i ta g

era ke

Tolikara

cak Jaya

y Jaya

Ti ika

ta Jaya

Yah ki

Ta ah

eg

La

External Zones

Internal Zones of Middle Mountain Range

1 141

1

&%

1 1 ) ) () 2 7 1 3 1& 3 1& 3

&6 ' 11 5 ) & 1&1 & 3 & 2 2 1 0 ) ( ' $

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

ota Jaya ra a ire Ti ika gats Ta a h erah era k e eg ga i t a g Yah k i o Jaya ijaya La y Jaya ga Tolikara c ak Jaya c ak a iai ogiyai e ra o Te gah Yali o I ta Jaya

0 559.1 470 412 385 681 268.3 247 243 260 285 228 312 384 464 550.3 184 163 356

559.1 0 215 379 610 810.29 571 406.49 396 343 368 356 270 189 125 39.18 432 465 106

4436 215 0 166 403 602 378 229 223 187 184.44 215 137.23 137 94 180 282 312 124

412 379 166.29 0 246 439 251.31 166 172 182 134 217.35 196 233.4 258.11 346 243 257 271.4

385 809.5 403 246 0 295 117 240 255 310 260 326 369 439 488 581 285 267 483

681 810.29 601 439 295 0 412 515.24 532 577.11 521 601 621 672.23 694 728 375 561 703

268.3 571.1 378 251.31 117 412 0 168 182 240 205.28 244 308 388 489 547 187 162 434

246.6 243 406.49 396 229 223 166 255 240 255 515.24 532 168 182 0 16 16 0 72 56.22 46 44 90 71 139.14 127.47 220 207.48 285 274.15 385 373 79 72 93 93 328 259

260 343 187 182 310 577.11 240 72 26.22 0 58 37 71.45 154.22 227.27 324 96.22 128.42 172

285 368 184.44 134 260.2 520 205.28 46 44 57 0 90 110.33 184.44 244 344 115.41 136 203

228 356 215 217.35 326 601 244 85 71 37 90 0 89 169 244.48 339.48 76.37 109.37 186

312 270 137.23 196 369 621 308 139.14 127.47 71.45 110.33 89 0 82 156 252 162.3 195.37 129

384 189 137 233.39 439 672.23 388 220.26 207.48 154.22 184.44 169 82 0 77 170 243.32 277 77

462 550.3 123 39.18 94.15 180 258.11 346 488 581.3 694 272 489 547 285.35 385 274 373 225.27 324 244 344 244.48 339.48 156 252 77.18 170 0 98 98 0 319 415 352 449 63.27 96

ogiyai
#

a ire

cak

ga

a iai

gats          

"  

!        

             

©

¨§

¦

¥

¤

etres] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Table 5.4 Person Movement Matrix Estimating for 2017 [person/year] 1 Kota Jaya ura 2 3 4 erah 5 6 Pegunungan Bintang 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 em ramo Tengah 17 18

Puncak Jaya

Jayawijaya

Yahukimo

anny Jaya

erauke

Tolikara

ogiyai

Tanah

External Zones

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
UT

Tolikara Puncak Jaya Puncak Paniai
H P S

XW Yf W Y WUT e

c

V Y X W T VU

S

s

W T g YU `Yg

VV e T W d `T

T b a WT Y T ` W Y

ogiyai em ramo Tengah Yalimo Intan Jaya rce: St y f I te r te Tr

R

G Q

10 11

Internal Zones of Middle Mountain Range

P

6 7 8 9

erauke Pegunungan Bintang Yahukimo Jayawijaya anny Jaya uga

P

I

4 5

H G

1 2 3

Kota Jaya ura a ire Timika gats Tanah erah

6765 8586 11009 5417 1316 4272 5868 5893 18865 5651 4018 7911 17215 10571 8448 3310 5827 5935 6575 rt t i et 11064 5204 1200 3972 5267 5445 17455 5304 3771 7357 16570 10496 8636 3503 5288 5328 6601 rk e vel

2943 12809 0 7722 1778 5888 7783 8022 25691 7779 5562 10758 24190 15074 12350 4839 7747 7810 9346 e t f

9453 5689 7294 0 843 2795 3668 3732 11924 3577 2581 4940 10980 6790 5488 2149 3587 3628 4167 i le

4366 2140 2744 1378 0 1136 1488 1451 4628 1376 993 1907 4185 2571 2067 809 1404 1429 1576 t i

1623 4041 5181 2604 648 0 2754 2697 8599 2561 1851 3545 7815 4819 3897 1543 2709 2646 2962 e,

3468 1832 2349 1172 291 945 0 1254 4000 1188 855 1652 3608 2212 1760

1509 800 1026 505 120 392 531 0 1753 521 374 722 1582 970 777

640 2563 3285 1587 384 1250 1695 1753 0 1672 1198 2318 5073 3110 2492 974 1692 1709 1903

2040 776 995 484 114 372 504 521 1682 0 359 702 1542 945 756 296 506 510 582

610 555 711 349 82 269 362 374 1198 359 0 496 1094 671 539 210 360 364 414

441 1073 1376 669 158 515 700 723 2318 702 496 0 2138 1310 1048 410 707 712 808

844 2413 3094 1486 347 1136 1529 1582 5073 1542 1094 2138 0 2952 2362 924 1537 1549 1808

1841 1504 1928 919 213 700 937 970 3110 945 671 1310 2952 0 1496 585 942 949 1139

1129 1232 1579 743 171 566 746 777 2492 757 539 1048 2362 1496 0 482 754 759 927

901 486 624 293 68 248 296 306 981 298 212 413 931 590 486 0 297 299 370

390 773 991 486 116 378 517 528 1692 506 360 707 1537 942 754 295 0 528 581

491 118 385 527 534 1709 510 364 712 1549 949 759 297 528 0 583

694 304 1220 528 1243 534 1355 587 r v i c e, 2010

Yalimo 635 779 999

Timika

Puncak

a ire

uga

Paniai

gats

@ B

E

D 9

C

B

B

A

@ 9

8

F

1

2

Pegunungan Bintang

Membramo Tengah

Kota Jayapura

Tanah Merah

Puncak Jaya

Jayawijaya

Lanny Jaya

16 17 18 19

I ter al o es of

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Kota Jayapura 0 339 78 262 85 131 30 245 104 333 Nabire 424 0 330 107 164 37 305 130 415 125 Timika 543 135 0 137 210 47 391 166 532 160 Agats 264 66 205 0 102 23 191 81 259 78 Tanah Merah 64 16 49 16 0 6 46 20 62 19 Merauke 219 54 169 55 85 0 158 67 214 64 Pegunungan Bintang 279 69 215 70 108 24 0 85 272 82 Yahukimo 279 69 215 70 108 24 201 0 273 82 Jayawijaya 892 221 689 224 345 77 643 273 0 263 Lanny Jaya 268 66 207 67 104 23 193 82 263 0 Nduga 192 47 148 48 74 17 138 59 188 56 Tolikara 373 92 288 94 144 32 268 114 365 110 Puncak Jaya 825 205 638 207 318 71 593 252 807 243 Puncak 513 128 398 129 198 44 369 157 502 151 Paniai 416 104 323 105 161 36 299 127 407 123 Dogiyai 166 42 129 42 64 14 119 51 162 49 Membramo Tengah 273 67 210 68 105 24 196 83 266 80 Yalimo 277 68 213 69 107 24 199 84 270 81 Intan Jaya 318 79 246 80 122 27 228 97 310 93 Source: Study of Integrated Transportation Network Development of Middle Mountain Range, Papua Province, 2010
i le o tai Ra ge Exter al o es

100 89 114 56 13 46 58 59 188 56 0 78 173 108 88 35 57 58 67

71 173 222 108 26 89 114 114 365 110 78 0 338 210 170 68 111 113 130

139 385 493 239 58 198 251 252 807 243 173 338 0 466 378 150 246 249 288

307 240 307 149 36 123 156 157 502 151 108 210 466 0 236 94 153 155 179

191 195 250 121 29 100 127 127 407 123 88 170 378 236 0 76 124 126 146

155 176 226 109 26 91 115 115 368 111 79 154 341 213 173 0 112 114 132

141 126 162 79 19 65 83 83 266 80 57 111 246 153 124 49 0 83 95

102 128 164 80 19 66 84 84 270 81 58 113 249 155 126 50 83 0 96

Intan Jaya 103 148 190 92 22 76 97 97 310 93 67 130 288 179 146 58 95 96 0

Yahukimo

Merauke

Tolikara

Dogiyai

Puncak

Yalimo

Nabire

Timika

Nduga

Paniai

Agats

p

p

q

i p

Ta le 5.5 Freight oveme t 3 4 5 6
i h

atri Estimati g for 2017 [to /year] 7 8 9 10 11 12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Rotary Wing Transportation Infrastructure Networks
‡ The rotary wing transportation network is simple and it including: helipad networks and helicopter armada. The network hierarchy can planned according to transport demand amount hierarchy, illustrated with figure 6.1.

Quarter helipad point, villages centre

Secondary helipad point, Centers of Regency Zone Primary Regency, Wamena

Figure 6.1 : Rotary Wing Transportation Infrastructure Networks

Rotary Wing Transportation Infrastructure Networks
‡ The special characteristic of aircraft industry is that the capacity of the aircraft can offer by according the demand. So in this case the helicopter will supplied for this system operation can be arrangement in capacity hierarchy, for example little size helicopters for villages, middle size helicopter for district, big size helicopters for regencies, and giant helicopters for primary regency center point, that is Wamena city. For illustration of the big capacity helicopter that ever built is shown in Figure 6.2. ‡

Fi

re .2:

t r

i

r

s

rt ti

M

e

Source: http//lh5.ggpht.com, http//lh6.ggpht.com

Rotary Wing Transportation Infrastructure Networks
‡ The important problem in planning and development or transportation system for middle mountain range area in Papua is the dilemma between development acceleration and forest conservation. Despite acquisition and protection of environmentally significant public lands, fragmentation from infrastructure and development continues to threaten ecologically intact landscape, inevitably impacting habitat corridors and wildlife population (Swanson, 2007). ‡ ‡ Apparent conflicts between transportation and ecology provide unique situations that challenge our understanding of the underlying science and engineering as well as the effectiveness of related policy (Erickson, 2007). ‡ ‡ It must be deeply analyze to find the optimum and equilibrium between population growth-economy activity-ecology (Kusdian, 2009).

CONCLUSIONS
‡ With rotary wing transportation system supply in the first time of development phase of middle mountain transportation system can be avoid for a view of time the forest damage will cause by another alternative of transportation system, for example surface transport system. In this case surface transportation system it self is more difficult to build even can be impossible in cost and technically. ‡

REFERENCES
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Bartelmus, Peter, 1994, Environment, Growth and Development, Routledge, New York Erickson, Gregg A., 2007, California Integrated Approach to Collaboratative Conservation in Transportation Planning, Proceedings of International Conference of Ecology and Transportation (ICOET), Little Rock-Arkansas Faulks, Rex W., 1992, Principles of Transport, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Infrastructure Development Office of Papua Province, 2010, Study of Integrated Transportation Network Development of Middle mountain Range, Papua Province Internet browsing : http//lh5.ggpht.com, http//lh6.ggpht.com, March 13th 2010 Kusdian, R. Didin, 2009, Transport Planning Around Conservation Forest Area at Supiori as a New Expanding Regency of Biak Island, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on QiR (Quality in Research), at Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. Swanson, Sherri, 2007, Habitat Linkage Within a Transportation Network, Proceedings of International Conference of Ecology and Transportation (ICOET), Little Rock-Arkansas Tamin, Ofyar Z., 2008, Perencanaan & Pemodelan Transportasi,, Penerbit ITB, Bandung

‡ ‡ ‡

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.