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Dr.

yulia fitriani, spm

Coronal Section
of the Head
Through the
Orbit, Sinuses,
and Oral Cavity

Sagittal section of right orbital cavity.

Brain MRI: sagittal cut, T1-weighted.1, Gyrus


parahippocampus. 2, Globe. 3, Caudate nucleus. 4,
Atrium (lateral ventricle). 5, Gyrus lingual.

HORIZONTAL / AXIAL SECTION

IMAGINE RIGHT EYE,


ANTERIOR VIEW

CORONAL SECTION, ORRA


SERATA
1.LACRIMAL GL SUPEROLATERAL
TROCHLEA SUPEROMEDIAL
ALL RETINAL VASCULATURE IS VISIBLE
ORRA SERATA
OPTIC NERVE HEAD MEDIAL
MACULA LUTEA LATERAL

IMAGINE RIGHT EYE, LATERAL


VIEW
SAGITTAL
SECTION

1. Lateral Rectus muscle

lateral
2. Inferior oblique insertion
behind lateral rectus muscle

SUPERIOR VIEW, AXIAL


SECTION, FOVEA CENTRALIS

OPTIC NERVE HEAD POSTEROMEDIAL


FOVEA CENTRALIS POSTEROLATERAL

MUSCLE ORIGIN &


INSERTION
origin is the
insertion is the
attachment site that
doesn't move during
contraction,

attachment site that


does move when the
muscle contracts.

BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION OF
NERVE
A. First letter
G = General = types of neurons found both in spinal nerves and cranial
nerves.
S = Special = types of neurons only found in cranial nerves not spinal
nerves.
B. Second letter
S = Somatic = types of neurons innervating structures derived from
somites.
V = Visceral = types of neurons innervating gut, structures derived from
or associated with gut and branchial arches; also vascular system,
smooth muscle, internal organs and glands.
C. Third letter
A = Afferent = sensory neurons.
E = Efferent = motor neurons to skeletal and smooth muscle; also
secretomotor neurons to glands.

CLASSIFICATION OF INNERVATION AS
FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS
A. General Innervation like spinal cord
1. GSE (General Somatic Efferent) motor to somatic voluntary skeletal
muscles (derived from somites).
2. GSA (General Somatic Afferent) sensory to skin, joints, muscle and
tendon receptor endings, nasal and oral cavity.
3. GVE (General Visceral Efferent) = Autonomic Efferents motor to smooth
muscles in general and smooth muscles of skin (arrector pilae muscles)
and blood vessels, secretomotor to glands.
4. GVA (General Visceral Afferent) sensory to gut and its derivatives,
pharynx, blood vessels, glands and internal organs.
B. Special Innervation only found in head.
1. SSA (Special Somatic Afferent) special senses of vision, auditory
sensation and vestibular apparatus.
2. SVA (Special Visceral Afferents) chemical senses of taste and by
analogy smell.
3. SVE (Special Visceral Efferents) motor to voluntary skeletal muscles
derived from branchial arches (these muscles develop in association with
pharynx, which is rostral end of gut and therefore visceral ).