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Unit 4

* The Hydrosphere refers to all the water on the planet. It is three quarters of the
surface of the Earth. The other quarter is land.

*The 97% of the
Hydrosphere is
seawater (oceans and
seas) which is salt
water.
*The remaining 3% is
inland water (rivers
and lakes and
groundwater or
aquifers) which is fresh
water.

* The water of the hydrosphere is found in three states:
* Liquid: water is between 0º and 100º
C. It is found in Oceans, seas, rivers,
lakes, aquifers…

* Solid: water is below 0ºC, frozen as
snow or ice. It is found in glaciers,
icebergs, and in polar circles.
* Gas: Liquid water over 100ºC
evaporates in form of water
vapour. It is found in the
Atmosphere.

The composition of the
Hydrosphere

* Waves are undulating curves caused by the wind.
* Tides are the regular movements of the seas in which sea level rise and fall. They are
caused by the gravitational force of the Sun and the Moon.
* Ocean currents are the movements of water within oceans and seas. They have
different densities and temperatures. There are warm currents and cold currents.

* A river is a flowing body of fresh water that flows into a sea, ocean, lake or another
river. When it flows into another river it is called tributary.
* We can find different elements in a river:
* Drainage basin or watershed: the area around a river where water from rain and snow drains
into the river.
* Riverbed: is the channel dug by a river and where it flows.
* River flow: is the amount of water a river carries.

River flow

Guadalquivir´s Basin

Riverbed

* The parts of the river are:
* Course: is the path of a river. It has three main parts:
* Upper Course: includes the source, where the river starts. It is the steepest part of a river, usually going
down the mountains at great velocity, eroding valleys and canyons.
* Middle course: the middle part or the river, here the course is less steep and the river bends making up
meanders.
* Lower course: the final part of the river, near the mouth. Here the river became flat and wide. The
mouth is where the river flows into. It coud be two types:
* Estuary: big and open mouths where fresh water from the river mixes with salt water from the sea.
* Delta: big mouths where sediments are deposited forming little “islands” in a triangular shape.

Water Cycle (or Hydrological cycle) is the continuous circulation of water
from the Earth to the atmosphere and back again, changing from one state to
another (Solid, liquid and gas).
Let´s watch a video:

What happens during the Water Cycle?

• Water Cycle:
• When the water in the oceans or seas gets warm by the heat of
the sun, it evaporates. This water vapour weighs litttle, so, it
goes up and at the same time, it gets cooler. It condenses into
little drops of water making up clouds. As these droplets get
bigger, their weight makes them fall as precipitation and the
water goes back to the ground.

• Evaporation: when liquid water turns into gas
• Condensation: When water in gas state turns into liquid water.
• Precipitation: When water falls from the clouds to the surface of the
Earth as rainfall, snow or hail.