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Work changes Energy

2

Work ± Energy Relationship

2 types of energy

± kinetic : energy of an object in motion

± potential: stored energy due to position or stored in a

spring

Work and energy are inseparable ± two sides of the

same coin

Energy = ability to do work

Work

± process of transferring energy from one object to another

± process of converting energy from one type to another

3

Work done by a constant force

± product of force component parallel to displacement

vector and the displacement

cos ( ) Work F d F d U ! ! y

r r

+ work when component of force is in same direction as the

displacement

work when force is opposite to displacement

0 work when force is perpendicular to displacement

SI units = Nym = Joule (J)

4

Work causes energy change

Work is done:

± when an object moves as a result of applied force(s)

± by the component of the force parallel or anti-parallel

to the displacement vector

Work (scalar quantity) on an object can be:

± Positive: increases its energy

± Negative: decreases its energy

± Zero: no energy change

5

Forces perpendicular to motion do zero work

6

Net Work

Sum of work values done on an object

Can be calculated either by

± summing up all work values (+, and 0)

OR

± Net force y displacement

Pull force

f

k

d

1) Net work = (Pull y d) + (f

k

y d) OR

2) Net work = 7F y d

7

8

Work by gravitational force

Work is done by the hiker¶s force in the

vertical direction only

Use the vertical height that hiker is moving

through

assumes constant speed

work by hiker is +

work by weight force is

9

Positive, negative zero work values

Man¶s push force does

negative work

displacement

down the ramp

piano¶s weight component mgsino

does positive work

Net work done on piano moving at constant speed = ?

Zero

10

Work = area under Force ± displacement graph

+ work

work

How can work done by a varying force be determined?

11

Work ± Kinetic Energy Theorem

Net work on an object changes its kinetic energy

net F net F

d

´ )

net

W d ma d = L = g

v

o

v

f

_ a

1

2

f o

netF f o

v v

W m v v t

t

¨ ¸

¨ ¸

= +

¦

¦

' '

' '

2 2

1 1

2 2

netF f o

W mv mv =

Work

changes

energy

12

Kinetic Energy

Kinetic Energy of an object in motion is defined

Total work done on the object to get it from rest

to some final velocity

Kinetic energy is always a positive number ±

scalar quantity

Change in Kinetic energy can be positive or

negative depending on the change in velocity

2

1

2

K mv =

net f i

W K K K = A =

13

T=20 N

f

k

v

o

= 4m/s

T=20 N

f

k

v = 6 m/s

What was the change in the KE for our 4 kg mass?

¨KE = 1/2(4)(6)

2

- 1/2(4)(4)

2

¨KE = 72 - 32 = 40 J

Find the value of f

k

:

W

total

! (KE

3 m.

20 3 f

k

3 ! 40

f

k

! 6.7 N

14

15

Gravitational potential energy

Work by external force = APE

grav

= PE

2

± PE

1

Gravitational Potential Energy PE

Work done by an external force on an object,

against the gravitational weight force, to

change its vertical position, (height = h)

Requires a system of two objects ± one being

moved and the Earth which creates

gravitational forces on it.

Defined with respect to a zero energy

reference point. h = 0, PE = 0

Units are Joules

Stored energy ± ability to perform work as a

result of its vertical position above/below zero.

16

Gravitational Potential Energy

KE = 0 h = 0 PE

1

= 0

Lifting from h=0 a vertical distance h is done starting at rest and

ending at rest and moves at a constant speed therefore AKE = 0

All work done changes the PE of the object

Lift force = weight force

Work = mgyh = APE= PE

f

± PE

0

PE = mgh (AP equation sheet use U

g

for gravitational PE

m

d= h

KE = 0 h = h PE

2

= mgh

Weight = mg

Lift = mg

17

Initial PE = 2 y9.8 y6 = 117.6 J

Final PE = 2 y9.8 y2 = 39.2 J

A PE = - 78.4 J

Ball lost 78.4 J of PE

Where did it go?

6 m

2 kg ball

2 m

Work by gravitational forces = APE

d

18

Gravitational force is a conservative force

Two criteria define conservative forces

1. Net work done by conservative force around closed loop equals

zero

Roller coaster has the same amount of energy when it returns

to the starting point

All PE converted to KE is converted back to PE

No energy is converted to heat (³lost´ or ³left behind´)

+ in one direction, in the other direction so the net sum = 0

19

2

nd

Criteria for Conservative Force

2) Net work is independent of path taken from start to finish;

Work depends only on the endpoints ± where it starts and

where it finishes

Vertical height change between starting and ending points

is what determines energy change not path taken

20

Non-conservative forces

Friction, air resistance, applied forces from

ropes, muscles, motors

Roller coaster has less kinetic energy when

it returns to the start when friction is present

Negative work done converts energy into

heat, not kinetic or potential energy

If path is reversed the energy lost due to

non-conservative forces is not returned to

the object

friction

Pull

negative work done by friction transfers heat to the floor which

cannot be reclaimed by the object

21

Change in PE is path independent

Since gravitational force is a

conservative force the ball will lose

the same amount of PE whether it

falls straight down or moves through

the parabola from h

0

to h

f

The boy¶s change in PE is the

same when he swings down

the semicircular path as when

he jumps straight down from

the cliff.

Change in PE depends ONLY

on the vertical height difference

that the mass moves through 22

Change in PE is path independent

In the absence of non-conservative forces the work done by

gravitational forces (= A PE) depends only on the straight line vertical

height difference the object moves through

23

Springs

0

unstrained

length

F

g

Equilibrium

position

x

F

s

Spring force F

s

=kx

spring force is always

opposite the

displacement trying to

restore spring to its

unstrained length

Spring Constant

F N

k

x

¨ ¸

!

¦

' '

Spring constant can be determined by hanging a weight on a

vertical spring or applying a force to a horizontal spring and

measuring the displacement

24

25

Elastic Potential Energy stored in spring

Work by external force = APE

s

= PE

2

± PE

1

Spring force is variable force but can

average force can be used to

calculate work

Elastic PE = ½ kxyx = ½ kx

2

AP equation sheet uses U

s

26

PE stored in spring enables it do work on the ball changing

the ball¶s KE

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Total energy stays constant when no non-

conservative forces are present

27

Law of Mechanical Energy Conservation

Energy is neither created nor destroyed it

is transferred or converted from one form

to another

Assumes

± system is closed: no mass added or removed

± system is isolated: no external forces present

Only work by non-conservative, external

forces can change energy

± Net work = AKE

± Net work = APE

28

Net work= AKE+ APE

since there are no external forces in an

isolated system then net work = 0

0 = AKE+ APE= (KE

f

± KE

0

) + (PE

f

± PE

0

)

regrouping initials and finals

KE

0

+ PE

0

= KE

f

+ PE

f

Total mechanical energy defined as E

Total E before an ³event´ = Total E after

the ³event´

Total energy change = 0

29

Total Mechanical Energy stays constant

2 2

0 0

1 1

2 2

f f

mv mgh mv mgh + = +

Only 1 object in problem so mass

will cancel

If PE or KE are required then a

mass value must be included

Very useful formula to remember

when object has all KE

converting to all PE or vice versa:

2 v gh =

30

Total Energy Stays Constant

Path independence is major

advantage to energy

approach

Simplifies complex path

problems

Only the vertical height

change of the object is what

determines the amount of

energy converted between

KE and PE

No non-conservative forces

can be present (friction or air

resistance)

31

32

Work done by non-

conservative forces must be

included in the total of energies

Net work = AK + AU

F

ext

yd f

k

yd = AK + AU

Work

ext

= AK + AU + (f

k

yd)

AE

thermal

Must account for work or energy change associated with all

forces

conservative or non-conservative

external or internal to system

Conservation of Energy Law is not violated when external or

non-conservative forces act

33

Power

Rate of change of work with time

Time rate of energy transfer

Units

tan Work Force dis ce

Power

time time

y

! !

Power Force average velocity ! y

1 Joule

1 Watt (W) =

1 second

34

Energy transfer from power

35

energy transfer

Po er Energytransfer po er time

time

= = y

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