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Don¶t do dumb stuff with electricity!!

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Learn circuit symbols and how to draw circuits

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Real batteries have internal resistance

Internal resistance (r) due to current passing through metal reduces the actual ³terminal voltage´ that battery operates at (later)

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Resistors wired in parallel

Resistors wired in series

**Key to analyzing circuits is determining the equivalent resistance of all resistors in the circuit
**

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**Equivalent Resistance of a Circuit
**

The one resistor that can replace all the resistors in the circuit and have the voltage source supply the same amount of current For series Req = Rs For parallel Req=Rp

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**Series Circuit Wiring
**

Resistors (devices) are wired in series when there is the same electric current passing through each device. Only one path for current to flow

As more resistors are added in series the length of resistor is getting longer thus equivalent resistance increases

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Req for series circuit

Current is equal in all resistors

I B ! I1 ! I 2

Voltage drops sum up

VB ! V1 V2

I B Rs ! I1 R1 I 2 R2

Rs ! R1 R2

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**Parallel Wiring of Circuits
**

Parallel wiring means devices are connected so that the same voltage is applied across each resistor Just as if each resistor is connected independently to source Current into each path depends on resistance in that path

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Parallel Circuits

Pipes in parallel provide more paths for water to flow Equivalent to having a wider diameter pipe = lower resistance to flow = more water flow

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Req for parallel circuits

currents sum up

voltage drop is equal for all resistors

I B ! I1 I 2

VB V1 V2 ! RP R1 R2

VB ! V1 ! V2

1 1 1 ! RP R1 R2

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**Series Parallel Comparisons
**

Series Adding more resistors

Req increases IB decreases

Parallel

Req decreases IB increases

Equivalent resistance

greater than for any single resistor

less than for any single resistor

Interrupt circuit at any point

current flow stops for entire circuit

current remains in the other branches AT THE SAME RATE

**3 bulb strip in series/parallel
**

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Analyze combination circuits ± series and parallel wiring

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Series

1) start with branch that is farthest from the battery and find its Req 2) redraw circuit 3) continue with next branch 4) work backwards toward battery until only one resistor remains; that is the Req of circuit

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Parallel

Series

**19.3 Kirchhoff¶s Rules
**

Some circuits cannot be broken down into series and parallel connections.

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**19.3 Kirchhoff¶s Rules
**

For these circuits we use Kirchhoff¶s rules. Junction rule: The sum of currents entering a junction equals the sum of the currents leaving it.

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Kirchoff¶s Loop Rule

The sum of the changes in potential around a closed loop is zero.

all increases in potential have to be accompanied by a decrease in potential for 7(V¶s = 0

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**Application of Loop Rule: + and ¨V¶s
**

Moving through resistor with your loop same direction as current ¨V= - iR voltage drop (downhill) opposite the current ¨V = + iR voltage increase (uphill) Moving through battery with your loop from ± to + ¨V = +E from + to - ¨V = - E ** You choose current direction and loop direction based on emf directions: arbitrary! i1

1

R1 R3 i2 R2

2

R4

i3

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Left loop:

I1 i1 R1 i2 R3 I 2 i1 R2 ! 0

i3 R4 I 2 i2 R3 ! 0

i1 i3 ! i2

i1 A R1 R3 i2 R2

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Right loop:

Junction A:

1

R4

i3

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i1

**Determine terminal voltage of real battery
**

Sum up the (V¶s as you go from b to a to find (V between them

Vb 12 Ir ! Va VB 12 V I! ! ! .18 A R e q 65.5 ;

R eq = 65 + 0.5 ;

Va Vb ! VT ! 12 (.18)(.5) ! 11.91V

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Ammeters & Voltmeters

ammeters put in series where current is being measured voltmeter always placed in parallel when measuring voltage drop ³across´ a resistor

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Capacitors in Circuits

What is equal? What sums up? Voltage, charge Parallel:

± voltages are all equal ± charges sum up

Series:

± charges are equal ± voltages sum up

Equivalent capacitance:

± value of the one capacitor that can replace all capacitors in the circuit and have the same charge flowing through battery

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Parallel Connection

All devices in parallel have same voltage drop across them Equivalent capacitance increases as if there are two very large area plates at +, potential

I0 A C! d

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Series Connection

Series connection means only one path for charges to move through Equivalent capacitance decreases as if the plate separation distance d has increased Charge on each I capacitor is equal C!

A d

0

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Equivalent capacitance for capacitors in parallel

QB ! Q1 Q2

CPVB ! CV1 C2V2 1

VB ! V1 ! V2

Q2

2

C p ! C1 C 2

Q2 ! C 2V

Q ! C pV

C2

Q1 Q1 Q Q

!

Cp

Q1 ! C1V

C1

VB VB

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Equivalent Capacitance for Capacitors in Series

C1

C2

QB ! Q1 ! Q2

QB Q Q ! Cs C1 C2

VB ! V1 V2

Q Q Q Q

Q Q

1 1 1 ! C s C1 C 2

VB ! QB Cs

C1

V1 ! Q C1 VB V2 ! Q C2

C2

!

Cs

V

caps in series

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**19.6 RC Circuits ± Resistor and Capacitor in Series
**

when the switch is closed, the capacitor will begin to charge.

current will drop off because it cannot flow through a capacitor final voltage reached is that of battery

RC circuit analysis

Initially current flows to the capacitor to provide charge to the plates. After the capacitor has been connected for a long time no current can flow through it, only through the two resistors. The voltage drop across the capacitor will be the same as through the 500 ; resistor since it is in parallel with it.

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