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ENGINE PARAMETERS

Oleh
Ellyanie, S.T.,M.T

For an engine with bore B , crank offset a, stroke length


S, turning at an engine speed of N:
S = 2a
Average piston speed is:
Up = 2SN
N is generally given in RPM (revolutions per minute),
Up in (ft/sec), and
B, a, and S in m or cm (ft or in.).
Average piston speed for all engines will normally be in
the range of 5 to 15m/sec (15 to 50 ft/sec)

Jarak s
s a cos r 2 a 2 sin 2

Dimana:

a = crank offset
r = panjang connecting rod
= sudut engkol

Rasio kecepatan piston terhadap kecepatan piston rata-rata


Up

cos



sin 1 2

2
Up 2
R sin

Dimana:

R = rasio panjang connecting rod terhadap crank


offset, 3 sampai 4 untuk mesin kecil dan 5
sampai 10 untuk mesin yang lebih besar
R = r/a

The compression ratio of an engine is defined as:


rc = Vol maks/Vol min
= (Vc + Vd)/Vc
Dimana: Vc = volume sisa
Vd = volume langkah
spark ignition (Sl) engines have compression ratios of
8 to 11,
compression ignition (Cl) engines have compression
ratios in the range 12 to 24.

Torsi dan Daya

Torsi biasanya diukur dengan dinamometer dihubungkan


melalui poros dan kopling ke motor.
Torsi:

T = F.l (Nm)

Dimana: F = gaya (N)


l = lengan (m)

Daya:

P = T.

Dimana: n

= T.2..n

(W)

= kecepatan poros motor (rps)

Kerja
Kerja:

W = P/(n.i) = 2. .T/i

(J)

Dimana: n = kecepatan poros motor (rps)


P = daya (W)
T = torsi (Nm)
i = siklus kerja perputaran poros
= 1 (2 langkah)
= 1/2 (4 langkah)

Kerja Indikator

Adalah kerja persiklus yang sebenarnya terjadi di dalam silinder, diperoleh


dengan mengukur luas diagram p-V dari siklus sebenarnya.

Actual work available at the crankshaft is called


brake work wb' Units of specific work will be kJ/kg or
BTU/lbm.
wb = wi - wf
where:

wi = indicated specific work generated


inside combustion chamber
wf = specific work lost due to friction and
parasitic loads

Brake mean effective pressure (bmep)


bmep = We/VL
Indicated mean effective pressure (imep)
imep = Wi/VL
Friction mean effective pressure (fmep)
fmep = imep - bmep

Specific fuel consumption


Adalah energi bahan bakar per kerja output
sfc = mf/W =
f /P
m
Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc)
bsfc = mf/We =
f / Pe
m
Indicated specific fuel consumption (isfc)
Isfc = mf/Wi =
f / Pi
m
Dimana:
mf = massa bahan bakar persiklus (kg)
= laju aliran massa bahan bakar persiklus (kg/s)

f
m

Efisiensi mekanis: m = isfc/bsfc

Efisiensi Thermal
Perbandingan kerja terhadap energi bahan bakar yang
disuplai
t = W/(mf.Hn) =

=P1/(sfc.Hn)
f .Hn
/m

Dimana: Hn = nilai kalor bahan bakar (J/kg)


Efisiensi efektif:

e = 1/(bsfc.Hn)

Efisiensi indikator:

i = 1/(isfc.Hn)

Hubungan efisiensi mekanis, efisiensi indikator,


dan efisiensi efektif :
m = e/ i
Efisiensi indikator (i) dari 50% sampai 60%,
Efisiensi efektif (e) biasanya sekitar 30 %

Efisiensi volumetrik

AIR FUEL RATIO AND FUEL AIR RATIO

Equivalence ratio ( ) didefinisikan perbandingan


air-fuel stokiometri terhadap air-fuel aktual

Rasio udara () didefinisikan perbandingan air-fuel


aktual terhadap air-fuel stokiometri
= (A/F)act/(A/F)stoich

Combustion & Emissions


Combustion of octane in air.

The carbon balance gives a = 8.


The hydrogen balance gives b = 9.
The oxygen balance gives x = 12.5.
The nitrogen balance gives y = 47.

EXAMPLE PROBLEM 2-2


The engine in Example Problem 2-1 is nnected to a
dynamometer which gives a brake output torque reading of 205
N-m at 3600 RPM. At this speed air enters the cylinders at 85
kPa and 60C, and the mechanical efficiency of the engine is
85%.Calculate:

Soal-soal

A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle CI engine with 12.9-cm bore and 18.0-cm


stroke, operating at 800 RPM, uses 0.113 kg of fuel in four minutes while
developing a torque of76 N-m. Calculate: (a) Brake specific fuel
consumption. [grnlkW-hr]
(b) Brake mean effective pressure. [kpa]
(c) Brake power. [kW]
(d) Specific power. [kW/cm2]
(e) Output per displacement. [kW/L]
(f) Specific volume. [L/kW]