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Communications

Joe Montana

IT 488 - Fall 2003

Agenda

Orbital Mechanics

Look Angle Determination

Orbital Mechanics

s = Distance traveled in time, t

u = Initial Velocity at t = 0

v = Final Velocity at time = t

a = Acceleration

F = Force acting on the object

Newtons

Second Law

s = ut + (1/2)at2

v2 = u2 + 2at

v = u + at

F = ma

4

FORCE ON A SATELLITE : 1

Next

Slide

Unit of Force is a Newton

A Newton is the force required to

accelerate 1 kg by 1 m/s2

Underlying units of a Newton are

therefore (kg) (m/s2)

In Imperial Units 1 Newton =

0.2248 ft lb.

5

ACCELERATION FORMULA

a = acceleration due to gravity = / r2

km/s2

r = radius from center of earth

= universal gravitational constant G

multiplied by the mass of the earth ME

is Keplers constant and

= 3.9861352 105 km3/s2

G = 6.672 10-11 Nm2/kg2 or 6.672 10-20

km3/kg s2 in the older units

6

FORCE ON A SATELLITE : 2

Inward (i.e. centripetal force)

Since Force = Mass Acceleration

If the Force inwards due to gravity = FIN then

FIN = m ( / r2)

= m (GME / r2)

Satellite

System

Orbital

Height (km)

INTELSAT

35,786.43

3.0747

23 56 4.091

ICO-Global

10,255

4.8954

5 55 48.4

1,469

7.1272

1 55 17.8

780

7.4624

1 40 27.0

Skybridge

Iridium

Orbital

Velocity (km/s)

Orbital

Period

h min s

Earth Centric Coordinate System

Fig. 2.2 in text

The earth is at the center

of the coordinate system

Reference planes coincide

with the equator and the

polar axis

More usual

to use this

coordinate

system

Satellite Coordinate System

Fig. 2.3 in text

The earth is at the

center of the coordinate

system and reference is

the plane of the

satellites orbit

10

Inward Force

GMEmr

r

Equation (2.7)

ME = Mass of the earth (and GME = = Keplers constant)

m = mass of satellite

r = satellite orbit radius from center of earth

11

Outward Force

d r

m

dt 2

Equation (2.8)

r

d r

3

r

dt 2

d r

r

Equation (2.10) equation with six unknowns:

0

2

3

2

dt

12

THE ORBIT - 1

We have a second order differential

equation

See text p.21 for a way to find a solution

If we re-define our co-ordinate system into

polar coordinates (see Fig. 2.4) we can rewrite equation (2.11) as two second order

differential equations in terms of r0 and 0

13

THE ORBIT - 2

Solving the two differential equations

leads to six constants (the orbital

constants) which define the orbit,

and three laws of orbits (Keplers

Laws of Planetary Motion)

Johaness Kepler (1571 - 1630) a

German Astronomer and Scientist

14

y

(0,b)

V(-a,0)

F(-c,0)

P(x,y)

F(c,0)

V(a,0)

(0,-b)

a2 b2 c2

Points (-c,0) and (c,0) are the foci.

Points (-a,0) and (a,0) are the vertices.

Line between vertices is the major axis.

a is the length of the semimajor axis.

Line between (0,b) and (0,-b) is the minor axis.

b is the length of the semiminor axis.

Standard

Equation:

2

x

y2

2 1

2

a

b

Area of ellipse:

A ab

15

Orbital Period

Orbital period and the Ellipse are related by

T2 = (4 2 a3) /

(Equation 2.21)

That is the square of the period of revolution is equal to a

constant the cube of the semi-major axis.

IMPORTANT: Period of revolution is referenced to inertial space, i.e., to

the galactic background, NOT to an observer on the surface of one of the

bodies (earth).

16

Numerical Example 1

The Geostationary Orbit:

Sidereal Day = 23 hrs 56 min 4.1 sec

Calculate radius and height of GEO orbit:

T2 = (4 2 a3) /

(eq. 2.21)

Rearrange to a3 = T2 /(4 2)

T = 86,164.1 sec

a3 = (86,164.1) 2 x 3.986004418 x 105 /(4 2)

a = 42,164.172 km = orbit radius

h = orbit radius earth radius = 42,164.172 6378.14

= 35,786.03 km

17

A sidereal day is the time between consecutive crossings

of any particular longitude on the earth by any star other

than the sun.

A solar say is the time between consecutive crossings of

any particular longitude of the earth by the sun-earth axis.

Solar day = EXACTLY 24 hrs

Sidereal day = 23 h 56 min. 4.091 s

Why the difference?

By the time the Earth completes a full rotation with

respect to an external point (not the sun), it has already

moved its center position with respect to the sun. The

extra time it takes to cross the sun-earth axis, averaged

over 4 full years (because every 4 years one has 366

deays) is of about 3.93 minutes per day.

18

Numerical Calculation:

4 years = 1461 solar days

(365*4 +1)

4 years : earth moves 1440

degrees (4*360) around sun.

1 solar day: earth moves 0.98

degrees (=1440/1461)

around sun

1 solar day : earth moves

360.98 degress around

itself (360 + 0.98)

1sidereal day = earth moves

360 degrees around itself

1 solar day = 24hrs = 1440

minutes

1 sidereal day = 1436.7

minutes (1440*360/360.98)

Difference = 3.93 minutes

19

ORBIT: 1

Start with Fig. 2.6 in Text

o is the True

Anomaly

See eq. (2.22)

C is the

center of the

orbit ellipse

O is the

center of the

earth

20

ORBIT: 2

Need to develop a procedure that will

allow the average angular velocity to be

used

If the orbit is not circular, the procedure is

to use a Circumscribed Circle

A circumscribed circle is a circle that has

a radius equal to the semi-major axis

length of the ellipse and also has the

same center

See next slide

21

ORBIT: 3

Fig. 2.7 in the text

E = Eccentric Anomaly

M = Mean Anomaly

M = arc length (in radians) that the

satellite would have traversed since

perigee passage if it were moving

around the circumscribed circle

with a mean angular velocity

22

ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS

Semi-Axis Lengths of the Orbit

p

a

2

1 e

b a 1 e

where

and (2.16)

the angular momentum

2 1/ 2

where

h C

e

See eqn.

(2.19)

23

ORBIT ECCENTRICITY

If a = semi-major axis,

b = semi-minor axis, and

e = eccentricity of the orbit

ellipse,

then

ab

e

ab

24

Time reference:

tp Time of Perigee = Time of closest

approach to the earth, at the same

time, time the satellite is crossing

the x0 axis, according to the

reference used.

t- tp = time elapsed since satellite

last passed the perigee.

25

ORBIT DETERMINATION 1:

Procedure:

Given the time of perigee tp, the

eccentricity e and the length of the

semimajor axis a:

Average Angular Velocity (eqn. 2.25)

M Mean Anomaly (eqn. 2.30)

E Eccentric Anomaly (solve eqn. 2.30)

ro Radius from orbit center (eqn. 2.27)

o True Anomaly (solve eq. 2.22)

x0 and y0 (using eqn. 2.23 and 2.24)

26

ORBIT DETERMINATION 2:

Orbital Constants allow you to

determine coordinates (ro, o) and

(xo, yo) in the orbital plane

Now need to locate the orbital plane

with respect to the earth

More specifically: need to locate the

orbital location with respect to a

point on the surface of the earth

27

RESPECT TO THE EARTH

The orbital constants define the orbit of

the satellite with respect to the CENTER

of the earth

To know where to look for the satellite in

space, we must relate the orbital plane

and time of perigee to the earths axis

NOTE: Need a Time Reference to locate the satellite. The

time reference most often used is the Time of Perigee, tp

28

GEOCENTRIC EQUATORIAL

COORDINATES - 1

zi axis Earths rotational axis (N-S

poles

with N as positive z)

xi axis In equatorial plane towards

FIRST

POINT OF ARIES

yi axis Orthogonal to zi and xi

NOTE: The First Point of Aries is a line from the

center of the earth through the center of the sun at

the vernal equinox (spring) in the northern

hemisphere

29

GEOCENTRIC EQUATORIAL

COORDINATES - 2

Fig. 2.8 in text

RA = Right Ascension

(in the xi,yi plane)

= Declination (the

angle from the xi,yi plane

to the satellite radius)

To First Point of Aries

NOTE: Direction to First Point of Aries does NOT rotate

with earths motion around; the direction only translates

30

Find the

Ascending Node

crosses the equatorial plane

from South to NorthInclination

Define and

i Ascension of the Ascending

Right

Node (= RA from Fig. 2.6 in text)

Define

See next slide

31

DEFINING PARAMETERS

Fig. 2.9 in text

Center of earth

Argument of Perigee

Right Ascension

First Point

of Aries

equatorial plane here

Inclination

of orbit

Equatorial plane

32

DEFINING PARAMETERS 2

33

and i together locate the

Orbital plane with respect to

the Equatorial plane.

locates the Orbital

coordinate system with

respect to the Equatorial

coordinate system.

34

Astronomers use Julian Days or Julian

Dates

Space Operations are in Universal Time

Constant (UTC) taken from Greenwich

Meridian (This time is sometimes referred to

as Zulu)

To find exact position of an orbiting satellite

at a given instant, we need the Orbital

Elements

35

Right Ascension of the Ascending

Node

i Inclination of the orbit

Argument of Perigee (See Figures 2.6

& 2.7 in the text)

tp Time of Perigee

e Eccentricity of the elliptical orbit

a Semi-major axis of the orbit ellipse

(See

Fig. 2.4 in the text)

36

Numerical Example 2:

Space Shuttle Circular orbit (height = h = 250

km). Use earth radius = 6378 km

a. Period = ?

b. Linear velocity = ?

Solution:

From equation 2.21:

T2 = (4 2 a3) / = 4 2 (6628)3 / 3.986004418 105 s2

= 2.8838287 107 s2

T = 5370.13 s = 89 mins 30.13 secs

v = 2a / T = 41,644.95 / 5370.13 = 7.755 km/s

Alternatively:

v = (/r)2. =7.755 km/s.

37

Numerical Example 3:

Elliptical Orbit: Perigee = 1,000 km, Apogee = 4,000 km

a. Period = ?

b. Eccentricity = ?

Solution:

a) 2 a = 2 re + hp + ha = 2 6378 + 1000 + 4000 = 17,756

km

a = 8878 km

T2 = (4 2 a3) / = 4 2 (8878)3 / 3.986004418 105 s2

= 6.930545 107 s2

T = 8324.99 s = 138 mins 44.99 secs = 2 hrs 18 mins

44.99 secs

b. At perigee,

Eccentric anomaly E = 0 and r0 = re + hp.

From Equation 2.42,:

r0 = a ( 1 e cos E )

re + hp = a( 1 e)

e = 1 - (re + hp) / a = 1 - 7,378 / 8878 = 0.169

38

39

ANGLES 1: HISTORICAL

Need six Orbital Elements

Calculate the orbit from these Orbital

Elements

Define the orbital plane

Locate satellite at time t with respect to the

First Point of Aries

Find location of the Greenwich Meridian

relative to the first point of Aries

Use Spherical Trigonometry to find the

position of the satellite relative to a point on

the earths surface

40

ANGLES 2: AGE OF THE PC

Go to http://www.stk.com and go to the

downloads area.

ANALYTICAL GRAPHICS software suite called

Satellite Tool Kit for orbit determination

Used by LM, Hughes, NASA, etc.

Current suite is STK 4.2 series

Elevation Angle

Azimuth Angle

41

ANGLE DEFINITIONS - 1

Nadir direction

Sub

Zenith direction

42

Coordinate System 1

Latitude: Angular distance, measured in

degrees, north or south of the equator.

L from -90 to +90 (or from 90S to 90N)

Longitude: Angular distance, measured in

degrees, from a given reference longitudinal

line (Greenwich, London).

l from 0 to 360E (or 180W to 180E)

43

Coordinate System 2

44

Satellite Coordinates

SUB-SATELLITE POINT

Latitude Ls

Longitude ls

EARTH STATION LOCATION

Latitude Le

Longitude le

Calculate , ANGLE AT EARTH CENTER

Between the line that connects the earth-center to the

satellite and the line from the earth-center to the earth

station.

45

LOOK ANGLES 1

Azimuth: Measured eastward (clockwise)

from geographic north to the projection of

the satellite path on a (locally) horizontal

plane at the earth station.

Elevation Angle: Measured upward from

the local horizontal plane at the earth station

to the satellite path.

46

LOOK ANGLES

Fig. 2.9 in text

NOTE: This is

True North

(not magnetic,

from compass)

47

Fig. 2.11 in text

El = - 90o

= central angle

rs = radius to the satellite

re = radius of the earth

48

Review of plane trigonometry

Law of Sines

Law of Cosines

Law of Tangents

C

a

b

B

a

b

c

c 2 a 2 b 2 2ab cos C

tan

d a d b , d a b c

d d c

2

sin A sin B sin C

a

b

c

cos a cos b cos c sin b sin c cos A

cos A cos B cos C sin B sin C cos a

Law of Sines

Law of Cosines for angles

Law of Cosines for sides

C

a

B

b

A

c

49

is defined so that it is non-negative and

cos () = cos(Le) cos(Ls) cos(ls le) + sin(Le) sin(Ls)

The magnitude of the vectors joining the center of the

earth, the satellite and the earth station are related by

the law of cosine:

1/ 2

re

re

d rs 1 2 cos

rs

rs

2

50

ELEVATION CALCULATION - 1

By the sine law we have

rs

d

sin sin

Which yields

cos (El)

Eqn. (2.57)

sin

re

re

1 2 cos

rs

rs

2

1/ 2

Eqn. (2.58)

51

AZIMUTH CALCULATION - 1

More complex approach for non-geo satellites. Different formulas

and corrections apply depending on the combination of positions

of the earth station and subsatellite point with relation to each of

the four quadrants (NW, NE, SW, SE).

Geostationary case is shown in the next slides.

52

GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES

We will concentrate on the GEOSTATIONARY CASE

This will allow some simplifications in the formulas

SUB-SATELLITE POINT

(Equatorial plane, Latitude Ls = 0o

Longitude ls)

EARTH STATION LOCATION

Latitude Le

Longitude

le

53

The original calculation previously shown:

cos () = cos(Le) cos(Ls) cos(ls le) + sin(Le) sin(Ls)

over the equator:

cos () = cos(Le) cos(ls le)

(eqn. 2.66)

54

Using rs = 42,164 km and re = 6,378.14 km gives

d = 42,164 [1.0228826 - 0.3025396 cos()]1/2 km

cos El

sin

1/ 2

given in equations (2.67) and (2.68), respectively, due to

the more precise values used for rs and re

55

A simpler expression for El (after Gordon and Walter, Principles

of Communications Satellites) is :

re

cos

rs

1

El tan

sin

56

To find the azimuth angle, an intermediate angle, , must first be

found. The intermediate angle allows the correct quadrant (see

Figs. 2.10 & 2.13) to be found since the azimuthal direction can lie

anywhere between 0o (true North) and clockwise through 360o

(back to true North again). The intermediate angle is found from

tan

l

l

s

e

1

tan

sin

L

e

NOTE: Simpler

expression than

eqn. (2.73)

57

Case 1: Earth station in the Northern Hemisphere with

(a) Satellite to the SE of the earth station: Az = 180o -

(b) Satellite to the SW of the earth station: Az = 180o +

Case 2: Earth station in the Southern Hemisphere with

(c) Satellite to the NE of the earth station: Az =

(d) Satellite to the NW of the earth station: Az = 360o -

58

EXAMPLE OF A GEO

LOOK ANGLE ALCULATION - 1

FIND the Elevation and Azimuth

Look Angles for the following case:

Earth Station Latitude

52o N

0o

Satellite Latitude

0o

Satellite Longitude

66o E

London, England

Dockland region

Geostationary

INTELSAT IOR Primary

59

EXAMPLE OF A GEO

LOOK ANGLE ALCULATION - 1

Step 1.

Step 2.

cos( ) = cos(Le) cos(ls-le)

= cos(52) cos(66)

= 0.2504

yielding

= 75.4981o

Find the elevation angle El

re

cos

rs

1

El tan

sin

60

EXAMPLE OF A GEO

LOOK ANGLE ALCULATION - 1

Step 2 contd.

El = tan-1[ (0.2504 (6378.14 / 42164)) / sin (75.4981) ]

= 5.85o

Step 3.

tan l s l e

tan

1

sin Le

= 70.6668

61

EXAMPLE OF A GEO

LOOK ANGLE ALCULATION - 1

The earth station is in the Northern hemisphere and the satellite is

to the South East of the earth station. This gives

Az = 180o -

= 180 70.6668 = 109.333o (clockwise from true North)

Elevation Angle = 5.85o

Azimuth Angle = 109.33o

62

VISIBILITY TEST

A simple test, called the visibility test will quickly tell you

whether you can operate a satellite into a given location.

A positive (or zero) elevation angle requires (see Fig. 2.13)

re

rs

cos

which yields

re

cos

rs

1

Eqns.

(2.42)

&

(2.43)

63

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS

For Geostationary Satellites

81.3o

This would give an elevation angle

= 0o

Not normal to operate down to zero

usual limits are C-Band

5o

Ku-Band

10o

Ka- and V-Band 20o

64

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