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Night Vision

Technology

CONTENTS
Introduction
Types of Night Vision
Working of Technical Night Vision
Night Vision Devices(NVDs)
Generations
Night vision in automobiles
Applications
Conclusion
References

INTRODUCTION
Night vision technology, literally allows one to see in the

dark.
Humans have poor night vision compared to many other

animals.
It is originally developed for military use .
With the proper night-vision equipment, we can see a

person standing (183 m) away on a moonless, cloudy night.

TYPES OF NIGHT VISION


It is broadly classified into two types
Biological Night Vision
Also called natural night vision
Rods in retina are responsible for night vision
Technical Night Vision

visuals using night vision devices


Two processes : Image intensification
Thermal imaging

WORKING OF TECHNICAL
NIGHT VISION

Fig1:- Image intensifier process

Technical Night vision can work in two very different ways


Image Intensification

Night vision amplifies light to achieve better vision .


Lens of NVD captures ambient light.

Cont.
The gathered light is sent to the image-intensifier tube.
The light energy released electron from the photocathode and

accelerated.
These electrons enter micro channel plate and bounce off and generate
more electron.
Thousands of other electrons to be released in channel.
Original electrons collide with the channel,exciting atoms and causing

other electrons to emit.


New electrons collide with other atoms, creating a chain.

Cont.
These electrons hit a screen coated with phosphor.

The energy of the electrons causes the phosphors to reach


an excited state and pass through the screen and release
photons.

The green phosphor image is viewed through another


lens.

Thermal Imaging

Fig2:-Thermal imaging process

Contd

Thermal Imaging

All objects emit infrared energy as a function of their


temperature.
A lens focuses the infrared light.

The focused light is scanned and create temperature


pattern.

The pattern created is translated into electric impulses.

Contd
The impulses are sent to a signal-processing unit that

translates the data into information for the display.


The signal-processing unit sends the information to the

display.
Thermal images are black and white in nature.

NIGHT VISION DEVICES


Night vision devices are basically divided into three
categories
SCOPES
They are monocular normally

handheld or mounted on a weapon.


GOGGLES
They are binocular and

worn on the head.


CAMERAS
Used for transmission or recording

of images mostly if the location is fixed.


Fig3:- Night vision devices

GENERATIONS
Generation 1
Three intensifier tubes
Heavier than generation 2 and 3.
Amplification: 1,000
Operating Life: 2,000 Hours

Contd

Generation 2
First Micro channel Plate Application
Able to see in extremely low light
Amplification: 10,000
Operating Life: 2,500 Hours

Contd
Generation 3
Improved Micro channel Plate & Photocathode.
Photocathode is coated with ion barrier film(IBF),

to prevent electrons generated in MCP migrating


back to photocathode and damage it.
Amplification: 40,000
Operating Life: 10,000 Hours

NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY IN


AUTOMOBILES
works on two phenomenon :ACTIVE ILLUMINATION
THERMAL IMAGING

ACTIVE ILLUMINATION
This system can detect pedestrians up to four times farther

than the typical headlight range even in penetrating dense


smoke.
It actively detects people near the roadway, highlighting
potential hazards and allowing drivers to have more time
to react to them.
It combines image intensification with source of
illumination.

THERMAL IMAGING
Thermal imaging is a heat-sensing technology that can

see in complete darkness using temperature


difference.
Electrical impulses are sent in the form of temperature

values to an image signal processor that turns them


into video data for presentation on a display.

PRESENT DAY APPLICATION


Audi(r8), BMW(7) uses thermal imaging

APPLICATIONS
Military
Automobiles
Surveillance
Security
Hidden-object detection

ADVANTAGES
No particular skill required.
Able to see in dark.
Accidents cases reduction.
Intensified night visual.

CONCLUSIONS
Night vision devices are basically designed for utmost

defensive purposes but the application within the


scientific or the civilian range is often prohibited by law.

In present scenario the applications of night vision

technology is very essential to combat terrorism which is


a major problem being faced by mankind.

REFERENCES
http://www.google.co.in
http://www.photonis.com/nightvision/products/supergen/su

pergen_specifications
http://www.irinfo.org/articles/03_01_2007_grossman.html
Www.Wikipedia.Org
En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Night_vision_device
Www.Morovision.Com/How_thermalimaging_works.html.
En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Night_vision

THANK YOU