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Chinese Abacus

## The first counting device was the abacus,

originally from Asia. It worked on a place-value
notion meaning that the place of a bead or
rock on the apparatus determined how much
it was worth.

Roman Abacus

Russian Abacus

Napier's bones
(1600s)

## Napier's bonesis a manually-operated calculating device

created byJohn NapierofMerchistonforcalculationof
products and quotients of numbers.

Pascaline (1642)

## Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator called

Pascaline. This calculating machine could add and subtract
two numbers directly and multiply and divide by repetition.

## Pascaline signed by Pascal

Difference Engine
(1812)

## Charles P. Babbage, the "father of the computer",

designed a machine, the difference engine which would
be steam-powered, fully automatic and commanded by
a fixed instruction program.

Lovelace(1840s)

## Ada Lovelace, world's first computer programmer,

provided the first algorithm intended to be
processed by Charles Babbage's early mechanical
general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.
Shesuggested that a binary system should be
used for storage rather than a decimal system.

Analytical Engine

Boolean logic(1850s)

## George Boole developed Boolean logic which

would later be used in the design of computer
circuitry.

## Venn diagrams for conjunction,

disjunction, and complement.

Holleriths
Tabulator(1890s)

## Dr. Herman Hollerith introduced the first electromechanical,

punched-card data-processing machine which was used to
compile information for the 1890 U.S. census. Hollerith's
tabulator became so successful that he started his own
business to market it. His company would eventually become
International Business Machines (IBM).

Hollerith card
puncher used by the
United States
Census Bureau

Vacuum Tube(1906)

## The vacuum tube is invented by American

physicist Lee De Forest.

## Triode vacuum tube

Turing Machine(1943)

## British mathematician Alan Turing developed a hypothetical

device, the Turing machine which would be designed to
perform logical operation and could read and write.

Harvard Mark I

## Howard Aiken, in collaboration with engineers from IBM,

constructed a large automatic digital sequence-controlled
computer called the Harvard Mark I. This computer could
handle all four arithmetic operations, and had special built-in
programs for logarithms and trigonometric functions.

ENIAC

## The giant ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and

Calculator) machine was developed by John W. Mauchly and J.
Presper Eckert, Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania. It used
18, 000 vacuums, punch-card input, weighed thirty tons and
occupied a thirty-by-fifty-foot space.

First Generation(1951-1959)

1951: Mauchly and Eckert built the UNIVAC I, the first computer designed
and sold commercially, specifically for business data-processing
applications.
1950s : Dr. Grace Murray Hopper developed the UNIVAC I compiler.
1957 : The programming language FORTRAN (Formula Translator) was
designed by John Backus, an IBM engineer.

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Integrated Circuit

## Jack St. Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce of Texas Instruments

manufactured the first integrated circuit, or chip, which is a
collection of tiny little transistors.

First IC

First transistor
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Second Generation
(1959-1965)

## 1960s : Gene Amdahl designed the IBM System/360 series of

mainframe (G) computers, the first general-purpose digital
computers to use integrated circuits.
1961: Dr. Hopper was instrumental in developing the COBOL
(Common Business Oriented Language) programming language.

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Cont

1963 : Ken Olsen, founder of DEC, produced the PDP-I, the first
minicomputer (G).
1965 : BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
programming language developed by Dr. Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John
Kemeny.

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THIRD GENERATION
(1965-1971)

## 1969 : The Internet is started.

1970 : Dr. Ted Hoff developed the famous Intel 4004
microprocessor (G) chip.
1971 : Intel released the first microprocessor, a specialized
integrated circuit which was able to process four bits of data at a
time. It also included its own arithmetic logic unit. PASCAL, a
structured programming language, was developed by Niklaus
Wirth.

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Fourth Generation
(1971-Present)

## 1975 : Ed Roberts, the "father of the microcomputer" designed the first

microcomputer, the Altair 8800, which was produced by Micro
Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS). The same year, two young
hackers, William Gates and Paul Allen approached MITS and promised to
deliver a BASIC compiler. So they did and from the sale, Microsoft was
born.

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Cont

1976 : Cray developed the Cray-I supercomputer (G). Apple Computer, Inc
was founded by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak.
1977 : Jobs and Wozniak designed and built the first Apple II
microcomputer.

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Cont

1970 : 1980: IBM offers Bill Gates the opportunity to develop the operating
system for its new IBM personal computer. Microsoft has achieved
tremendous growth and success today due to the development of MS-DOS.
Apple III was also released.
1981 : The IBM PC was introduced with a 16-bit microprocessor.

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Cont

## 1984 : Apple introduced the Macintosh computer, which incorporated a

unique graphical interface, making it easy to use. The same year, IBM
released the 286-AT.
1986 : Compaq released the DeskPro 386 computer, the first to use the
80036 microprocessor.

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Cont

## 1987 : IBM announced the OS/2 operating-system technology.

1988 : A nondestructive worm was introduced into the Internet network
bringing thousands of computers to a halt.
1989 : The Intel 486 became the world's first 1,000,000 transistor
microprocessor.

Intel 486

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Cont

## 1993s: The Energy Star program, endorsed by the Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA), encouraged manufacturers to build computer equipment that
met power consumption guidelines. When guidelines are met, equipment
displays the Energy Star logo. The same year, Several companies
introduced computer systems using the Pentium microprocessor from Intel
that contains 3.1 million transistors and is able to perform 112 million
instructions per second (MIPS).

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Fifth Generation(PresentBeyond)

## Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still

in development, though there are some applications, such as voice
recognition, that are being used today.
The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make
artificial intelligence a reality.
Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically
change the face of computers in years to come.
The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to
natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.

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## expression used to describe a variety of different types of

computing concepts that involve a large number of
computers connected through a real-time communication
network such as the Internet.
* Cloud providers claim that computing costs reduce.
* Device and location independence enable users to access
systems using a web browser regardless of their location
or what device they use.
* Virtualizationtechnology allows sharing of servers and
storage devices and increased utilization.

*Cloud Computing

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