You are on page 1of 54

Supervisory Development Programme-I

(SDP-I)
Topic : Non Destructive Testing (NDT)
Faculty : Naveen Seth

L&T Heavy Engineering Divison


Hazira

Outline

What is NDT ?

Where is NDT used ?

When is NDT used ?

Types of Discontinuities.

Common NDT methods.

NDT in L&T

Questions & Answers

What is NDT ?
NDT- Non Destructive Testing
The use of noninvasive
techniques to determine
the integrity of a material,
component or structure or
quantitatively measure
some characteristic of
an object.i.e. Inspect or
measure without doing harm.

What is NDT ?

Contd..

The field of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is a very


broad, interdisciplinary field that plays a critical role
in assuring that structural components and systems
perform their function in a reliable and cost effective
fashion. NDT technicians and engineers define and
implement tests that locate and characterize
material conditions and flaws that might otherwise
cause planes to crash, reactors to fail, trains to
derail, pipelines to burst, and a variety of less visible,
but equally troubling events.

What is NDT ?

Contd..

Because NDT allows inspection without interfering


with a product's final use, it provides an excellent
balance between quality control and costeffectiveness. Technology that is used in NDT is
similar to those used in the medical industry; yet,
typically nonliving objects are the subjects of the
inspections.

Where is NDT used ?


NDT is used where we need to ensure the
serviceability of a specimen. That may be the use of a
raw material such as a casting, the use of fabrication
such as welding, or the use of a finished part or
completed system. We apply NDT where we cannot
afford the cost of a failure of the specimen because
failure would be financially unacceptable or cause
harm to us.

When is NDT used ?


NDT is used both before and after production of raw
materials such as ingots and castings, before and
after fabrication, and before and after assembly of
parts into a completed system. Using NDT "before"
prevents a substandard material or part from
wasting time and increasing scrap production. The
"when" is right if profit, quality, and safety are the
result of using NDT.

Discontinuities
Definition : The change in the geometry or
composition of an object, it may be intentional or
unintentional.
Such changes inherently affect the physical
properties of the object and may in turn have an
effect on the objects ability to fulfill its intended use
or service life.
Every discontinuity is not a defect but every
defect is a discontinuity.

Discontinuities

Contd

The definition of defects changes with the type of


component, its construction, its materials and the
specifications or codes in force.
It is possible that discontinuity in one object may be
defect in another.Detection of discontinuities is
largely dependent on the discontinuitys physical
characteristics.

Discontinuities

Contd

While performing NDT it is also important to consider


how the material is produced, what manufacturing
process are used to form the finished product and
what discontinuities are typically initiated by the
process operations. Discontinuity is categorized by
the stage of manufacturing or use in which it
initiates.

Discontinuities

Contd

Discontinuity is categorized in four stages

Inherent discontinuities.

Primary processing discontinuities.

Secondary processing discontinuities.

Service induced discontinuities.

Discontinuities

Contd

Inherent discontinuities :
When ferromagnetic materials are produced, molten
metal solidifies into ingot form producing what is
known as inherent discontinuities.
Such discontinuities then can be rolled, forged and
section along with the material in its subsequent
processing operations.

Inherent Discontinuities

Cold shut
Location : Surface or Subsurface
Cause : The meeting of two streams of liquid metal
that do not fuse together.

Inherent Discontinuities

Porosity
Location : Surface or Subsurface
Cause : Entrapped gases during solidification of
metals

Inherent Discontinuities

Inclusions
Location : Surface or Subsurface
Cause : Contaminant introduced during the casting
process

Inherent Discontinuities

Hot tears
Location : Surface
Cause : Restraints from the core or mold during the
cooling process.

Segregation
Location : Surface or subsurface
Cause : Localized differences in material
composition.

Discontinuities

Contd

Primary Processing discontinuities :


Discontinuities those originate during hot or cold
forming are said to be primary processing
discontinuities. The processing of a wrought product
by rolling, forging, casting or drawing may introduce
specific discontinuities into the product and inherent
discontinuity that were at one time undetectable or
insignificant may propagate and become detrimental

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Porosity
Location : Surface or Subsurface
Cause : Vaporized constituents in the molten weld
metal are entrapped during solidification.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Cluster Porosity
Location : Surface or Subsurface
Cause : Vaporized constituents in the molten weld
metal are entrapped during solidification.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Slag Inclusion
Location : Subsurface
Cause : Improper cleaning of previous weld pass
and mixing of oxides on the base metal surface into
the weld pool

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Lack of Penetration
Location : Surface or Subsurface
Cause : Inadequate penetration of the weld joint root
by the weld metal.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Lack of Fusion
Location : Subsurface
Cause : Failure of filler metal to coalese with the
base metal.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Suck Back
Location : Surface or Subsurface
Cause : where the weld metal has contracted as it
cools and has been drawn up into the root of the
weld.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Internal Undercut
Location : Surface
Cause : Over sized weld pool (related to excessive
amperage, travel speed and electrode size.)

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

External Undercut
Location : Surface
Cause : Over sized weld pool (related to excessive
amperage, travel speed and electrode size.)

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Offset or mismatch
Location : Surface
Cause : where two pieces being welded together are
not properly aligned.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Cold / Hot Crack


Location : Surface or Subsurface.
Cause : A combination of atomic hydrogen,
hardenable material and high residual stress.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Inadequate weld reinforcement


Location : Surface.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Excess weld reinforcement


Location : Surface.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Tungsten Inclusion
Location : Subsurface.
Cause : Molten weld pool or filler metal comes in
contact with the tip of tungsten electrode.

Primary Processing Discontinuities (Weld)

Burn Through
Location : Surface.
Cause : Too much heat causes excessive weld
metal to penetrate the weld zone.

Secondary processing Discontinuities

Grinding Cracks
Location : Surface
Cause : Localized overheating of the material due to
improper grinding procedures.

Heat Treating Cracks


Location : Surface
Cause : Uneven heating and cooling that produces
stresses exceeding the tensile strength of the
material.

Secondary processing Discontinuities

Quench Cracks
Location : Surface
Cause : Sudden cooling from elevated temperature

Pickling Cracks
Location : Surface
Cause : Residual stress being relieved

Service Induced Discontinuities

Fatigue
Location : Surface
Cause : Cyclically applied stress below the ultimate
tensile strength.

Creep
Location : Surface
Cause : Material subjected to elevated temperatures
and stress below the yield strength.

Service Induced Discontinuities

Stress Corrosion Cracking


Location : Surface
Cause : Combined effect of static tensile load and
corrosive environment.

Hydrogen Cracking
Location : Surface
Cause : Combined effect of applied tensile or
residual stress and hydrogen enriched environment.

Common NDT Methods


The most common NDT methods used are as
follows :

Ultrasonic Testing.

Magnetic Particle Testing.

Penetrant Testing.

Radiography Testing.

Eddy Current Testing.

Ultrasonic Testing
High frequency sound waves are introduced into a
material and they are reflected back from surfaces or
flaws.
Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time, and
inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen
showing the depth of features that reflect sound.
f

initial
pulse

crack
echo

back surface
echo

crack
0

Oscilloscope, or flaw
detector screen

10

plate

Ultrasonic Testing
A typical UT inspection system consists of several
functional units, such as the pulsar/receiver,
transducer, and display devices. A pulsar/receiver is
an electronic device that can produce high voltage
electrical pulse. Driven by the pulsar, the transducer
generates high frequency ultrasonic energy. The
sound energy is introduced and propagates through
the materials in the form of waves. When there is a
discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part
of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw
surface.
f

Ultrasonic Testing
The reflected wave signal is transformed into
electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed
on a screen. The reflected signal strength is
displayed versus the time from signal generation to
when a echo was received. Signal travel time can
be directly related to the distance that the signal
traveled. From the signal, information about the
reflector location, size, orientation and other
features can sometimes be gained.
f

Ultrasonic Testing

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation


In solids, molecules can support vibrations in other
directions so the number of different types (modes)
of sound waves are possible. On the basis of particle
displacement in the medium ultrasonic waves are
classified as longitudinal waves , transverse waves ,
surface waves and lamb waves . Velocity remains
the same in the given medium but differs when the
method of vibration changes.

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation


There are four types of sound waves :

Longitudinal - Parallel to wave direction

Transverse - Perpendicular to wave direction

Surface (Rayleigh) - Elliptical orbit symmetrical mode

Plate Wave (Lamb) - Component perpendicular to


surface (extensional wave)

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation

Longitudinal or Compressional Wave


These waves mostly used in the inspection of
materials.The velocity of longitudinal waves is about
6000 m/sec in steel,1500 m/sec in water and 330
m/sec in air.
Longitudinal waves have particle vibration in a back
and forth motion in the direction of wave
propagation. These waves are readily propagated in
the liquids,gases and elastic solids.

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation

Transverse or Shear Wave


These wave have particle vibration perpendicular to
the direction of wave motion.These waves will not
travel through liquid, gases because force of
attraction between molecules are too small . the
velocity of these waves is about 50% the longitudinal
waves for the same medium.

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation

Surface or Reyleigh Wave


These waves travel along the flat or curved surface
of relatively thick solid parts.The velocity of these
waves are 90% of the transverse waves in the same
material. Surface waves are useful for detecting
surface cracks.Vibration of particle follow an elliptical
path.

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation

Types Of Sound Waves & Propagation

Plate or Lamb Wave


These waves also another type of ultrasonic waves
used to detect surface defect and penetrates only
upto half of wave length.These waves propagate in
plate only.

Transducer or Probe in UT
The conversion of electrical pulses to mechanical
vibrations and the conversion of returned
mechanical vibrations back into electrical energy is
the basis for ultrasonic testing. The active element is
the heart of the transducer as it converts the
electrical energy to acoustic energy, and vice versa.

Transducer or Probe in UT
Transducers or probes are very important tool in the
system. They act through couplant.The sensitivity of a
transducer is defined as its ability to detect smallest
discontinuities and it is measured by the response of
reflection from artificial discontinuity in reference
block.Transducers are classified into groups
according to the application.

Transducer or Probe in UT
Four basic types of transducers:

Normal
Probe
T/R Probe

Immersion
Probe

Angle Probe

Couplant
A couplant is a material (usually liquid) that facilitates
the transmission of ultrasonic energy from the
transducer into the test specimen. Couplant is
generally necessary because the acoustic
impedance mismatch between air and solids, such
as the test specimen, is large and, therefore, nearly
all of the energy is reflected and very little is
transmitted into the test material.

Couplant
The couplant displaces the air and makes it possible
to get more sound energy into the test specimen so
that a usable ultrasonic signal can be obtained. In
contact ultrasonic testing a thin film of oil, glycerin or
water is generally used and in immersion testing
water is between the transducer and the test
surface.