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Controlling of Early Thermal

contraction cracks
Radiotherapy Centre at
Maharagama Cancer Hospital

Project Brief
This project included construction of two under ground bunkers to
accommodate linear accelerators. Walls and slabs had to be up to
2.4m thick reinforced concrete sections in order to make the
bunker radiation proof.

Design & Built contractor


: ICC
Consultant
: CECB
Construction commencement date : December 2006

Fig 01: Layout of the Radiotherapy center

Project Specifications
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Grade 30 concrete to be used


Concrete Pouring Temperature less than 30 Centigrade.
Maximum Hydration Temperature of concrete less than 70C
Maximum differential Temperature within the section less than 20C
Maximum crack width less than 0.15mm.

How to comply with these specifications ?


.

Concrete mix design to be used

Do we need Chill water to be used ?

Use of Fly ash ?


Type of Formwork to be used and when removal is done ?

Temperature monitoring in trial block


V5
V4
V3

H1

H2

V2
V1

Fig 2 :Arrangement of Thermocouples in trial block


Fig 3 :Details of the Thermocouples used

Concrete Mix design


Cement
Fine aggregates
Course aggregates
Water
Pozzolith 300R

( Product brand : OMRON)


390 kg
900 kg
1020 kg
221 l
891 ml

Fig 5 :Temperature controllers

Fig 6 : Concreting on Progress

Thermocouples

Fig 7 : arrangement of Thermocouples

TRIAL 1
Cement : OPC
Type of Formwork : 15mm plywood + Durra board
Concreting starting time : 23.00 hr
Temperature of water : 6 0C

Fig 8: Dimensions of the trail block

Fig 09:Temperature variation with time for Trail 1


80
V
1
V
2

70

V
3

60

V
4
V
5

50
Temparature / C

H
1
H
2

40

30

20

10

0
Time / hr

TRIAL 2
Cement : OPC with 25% fly ash
Type of Formwork : 15mm plywood + Durra board
Concreting starting time : 00.00 hr
Temperature of water : 6 0C

Fig 10: Dimensions of the trail block

Fig 11 :Temperature variation with time for Trail 2


70

60

10

50

40
Temparature / C

30
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
H
1
H
2

20

10

0
Time / hr

TRIAL 3
Cement : OPC 25% fly ash
Type of Formwork : 15mm plywood
Concreting starting time : 23.30 hr

Temperature of water : 6 0C

Fig 12 : Dimensions of the trail block

Fig 13,Temperature variation with time for Trail 3


80

70

19 C

60

Mean ambient + 20

50
Temparature / C
40

V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
H
1

T1 = 30 C
Mean Ambient

30

20

10

0
Time / hr

Our selection of Mix design and type of formwork is


satisfactory
Considering T1=30 C design was carried and no any
visible cracks observed after contraction. also after the
completion, structure was checked and certified by
Atomic Energy Authority as a radiation proofed structure

In general, regarding concreting of large sections we


can come to following Conclusions
15mm plywood would ensure 20 0C temperature gradient
Calculating T1 as the difference between mean peak temperature
and mean ambient temperature would be sufficient.
Formwork removal period can be extend up to 7-8 days in order to
limited the temperature gradient within 20 0C
It is difficult to limit the peak temperature below 70 0C even with chill
water with out using fly ash or equivalent cement replacement

THANK YOU