uniform circular motion

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uniform circular motion

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directions (x and y for example) simultaneously.

y

What do you know about an object that is

v

v

a

v

a

v

a

The radius is constant and the speed is

constant.

Is the object

accelerating?

Yes!

the direction of the velocity changes.

What is the direction of the

acceleration?

The acceleration is directed towards the

center of the circular path. This is called

centripetal acceleration.

v

The centripetal acceleration is what keeps the object moving in a

circular

path.happen to the object moving in a circular path if the

What

would

centripetal acceleration was instantaneously reduced to zero?

The object would move in the direction of the velocity at the instant the

acceleration was reduced to zero. This would result in a straight line path

that is tangent to the circular path at that instant.

along a circular path. The position vectors are

defined relative to the center of the circular path

for this case.

This will result in a change in position defined by

r. The radius of the path does not change,

therefore r corresponds to a directional change

() only.

The velocity will also change. Since there is no

acceleration along the direction of the velocity you

again have only a directional change ().

Notice that r is in the direction of the velocity

(tangent to the path), v is in the direction of the

acceleration (perpendicular to the path) and since r

and v are perpendicular both change through the

same angle .

Using the definition for arc length we can relate

r to r through . (The arc length will be linear

over a small angular change. Ideally we would be

using the differential form of these quantities.)

We can apply this definition to velocity as well.

r

r0

v0

v0

s r

s - Arc length

r r

v v

velocity vectors we can obtain an expression for the centripetal

acceleration. (This analysis has been simplified and is therefore not the

most accurate method that can be used. We should be using the

differential form of each of these quantities.)

r

r

v

v

r r

v v

a

t

v

v r

r

v 1

v r

v v2

v

r

r

r

r

t r t

v

a

r

r v

r

v

Centripetal acceleration

Centripetal acceleration is

always directed towards the

center of curvature. (Towards

the center of the circular arc.)

For circular motion the speed of the particle is constant.

r s

vv

t t

path of the particle, also called the arc length

between two points on a curved path.

s r s r

circular path and the angular change in position.

(r is constant for a circle.)

r r 0 r r 2

v

0

t t0

t

T

2r

T

v

T is used to represent the period

(time to complete one

revolution).

/T is the angular velocity ()

for a specified radius and speed.

outside edge of a DVD? The DVD has a radius of 6 cm and it takes the

speck of dust 0.29 s to go around once.

Physics

R

Explore the

Universe

2R

T

v

v2

a

R

4 2 0.06m

m

a

28.2 2

2

0.29s

s

2R

v

T

2R

T

a

R

4 2 R

T2

m

a 28.2 2 Towards the center

s

It is sometimes more convenient to define a new coordinate system when

discussing curvilinear motion.

The radial direction is defined to be positive outward from the center of

curvature.

The tangential direction is defined to be positive in the direction you

measure a positive angle.

changes as you move along the

circular path.

Centripetal acceleration is often

described using this coordinate

system (or Polar Coordinates).

contain both radial and tangential components.

In general the acceleration and velocity will have a radial and tangential component.

v vr r vt t

a ar r at t

v

r

is constant along the tangential

direction.

If the speed is constant there is no

tangential component of the

acceleration, but there is still a radial

component of the acceleration

directed in the negative r direction.

The centripetal acceleration is the

radial component of the acceleration

and will only change the direction of

the velocity.

of the acceleration it will cause a

change in the magnitude of the

tangential component of the

velocity.

v2

ar

r

dv

at

dt

dv

v

a r

t

r

dt

bearing (in container at lower left of picture) is blown through the spiral

hose, emerging at the right side and moving downward (in the picture),

toward one of the five aluminum tube targets. Which of the targets will it

hit?

1.

2.

3.

4.

1

2

3

4

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