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EAS 3612

INTRODUCTION:
AVIONICS

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EAS 3612 Avionics - Md Amzari bin Md Zhahir 2015

Text Books
1. Pallet, E.H.J (1992). Aircraft Instruments and Integrated System. Pearson
Education Limited.
2. Collinson, R.P.G (2002). Introduction to Avionics Systems (2nd Edition).
Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag.

EAS 3612 Avionics - Md Amzari bin Md Zhahir 2015

A Definition
A philosophy for the design and integration of
devices and equipment within a framework of
standards, techniques, and architectures that are
devised to meet the operational, performance
and specifications of aerospace systems.

EAS 3612 Avionics - Md Amzari bin Md Zhahir 2015

Importance and Role of Avionics (1)


Avionics is a word derived from the combination of aviation and
electronics.
Avionics mean any system in the aircraft which is dependent on
electronics for its operation, although the system may contain
electro-mechanical elements.
The avionics equipments cost:
30% of the total cost of a modern military or civil aircraft.
40% of the total cost of a maritime patrol/anti-submarine aircraft (or
helicopter).
Over 75% of the total cost of an airborne early warning aircraft such
as an AWACS.
In region of 10% of the total cost for a modern GA category aircraft.
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Importance and Role of Avionics (2)


Avionics systems development and introduction was driven by:
1. Major: the need to meet the mission requirements with the
minimum flight crew.
2. Increased Safety
3. Air Traffic Control Requirements
4. All Weather Operation
5. Reduction in Fuel Consumption
6. Improved Aircraft Performance, Control and Handling
7. Reduction in Maintenance Cost
8. In military case: Increase in threat posed by defensive and offensive
capabilities of potential
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Meeting the mission requirements with the


minimum flight crew: Modern Civil Airliner
A crew of two only, namely the First Pilot (or Captain) and the
Second Pilot.
This is only made possible by reducing the crew workload by
automating tasks which used to be carried out by the Navigator and
Flight Engineer.
The achievement of safe two crew operation has very considerable
economic benefits for airline in a highly competitive market with
the subsequent saving of crew salaries , expenses and training costs.
the reduction in weight translated into more passengers or longer
range on less fuel, as unnecessary weight is geared up ten to one.

EAS 3612 Avionics - Md Amzari bin Md Zhahir 2015

Meeting the mission requirements with the


minimum flight crew: Military
A single seat fighter or strike (attack) aircraft is lighter and costs
less than an equivalent two seat version.
The elimination of the second crew member
(Navigator/Observer/Radar Operator) has significant economic
benefits in terms of reduction in training cost. (The cost of training
and selection of aircrew for fast jet operation is very high.)

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Importance and Role of Avionics (3)


Core Avionics Systems
Five layers according to their roles
and functions:
Systems Interface
Aircraft State Sensors
Navigation
External World Sensors
Task Automation

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Importance and Role of Avionics (4)


Core Avionics Systems
Some avionics systems have been left out off this diagram for clarity, which
are all mandatory equipment for civil airliners, namely:
ATC transponder system
Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS)
provides warning by means of visual display and audio signal that the aircraft is on a
path flying into the terrain and action must be taken to change the flight path.

Threat Alert/Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)


provides an alerting and warning display of other aircraft in the vicinity in terms of
range, course and altitude together with advisory collision avoidance commands.

It should be noted that Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are totally


dependant on the avionics systems.
EAS 3612 Avionics - Md Amzari bin Md Zhahir 2015

Systems which interface directly with the pilot


These comprise
displays
communications
data entry and control
flight control systems

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Systems Interface: Displays


The display systems provide the visual interface between the pilots
and the aircraft systems and comprise head up displays (HUDs),
helmet mounted displays (HMDs) and head down displays (HDDs).
HMD has become an essential system in modern combat aircrafts
and helicopters.
The prime advantages of the HUD and HMD are that they project
the display information into pilots field of view so that the pilot can
be head up and can concentrate on the outside world.

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Systems Interface: Displays :: HUD


The HUD provides the primary display for presenting the essential
flight information to the pilot and in military aircraft has transformed
weapon aiming accuracy.
The HUD also display a forward looking infrared (FLIR) video
picture one to one with the outside world from a fixed FLIR imaging
sensor installed in the aircraft.
The infrared picture merges naturally with the visual scene
enabling operations to be carried out at night or in conditions of poor
visibility due to haze or clouds.

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Systems Interface: Displays :: HMD


The HMD in effect is a HUD on the helmet with the major
advantage that information can be presented to the pilot when
looking in any direction as opposed to the relatively limited forward
field of view of the HUD.
The HMD form part of an indirect viewing system by servoing a
gimballed infrared imaging sensor to follow the pilots line of sight
(a head position sensor derives the pilots sight line).
Image intenfication devices can be integrated into the HMD, which
provides a complementary night vision capability enabling the
aircraft (or helicopter) to operate at night or in poor visibility.

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Systems Interface: Displays :: HDD (1)


Colour HDDs revolutionised civil flightdeck with MFD
eliminating the inflexible and cluttered characteristics of 1970s
generation flightdecks with numerous dial type instrument displays
dedicated to displaying one specific quantity only.
The MFD provide the PFD of height, airspeed, Mach number,
vertical speed, artificial horizon, pitch angle, bank angle and
heading, and velocity vector.
The MFD provide the navigation displays, or horizontal situatuion
indicator (HIS) displays, which shows the aircraft position and track
relative to the destination or waypoints together with the navigational
information and distance and time to go.
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Systems Interface: Displays :: HDD (2)


The weather radar display can be superimposed on the HIS display.
Engine data are presented on multi-function colour displays so that
the health of the engines can be easily be monitored and divergences
from the norm highlighted.
The aircraft systems, for example, electrical power supply system,
hydraulic power supply system, cabin pressurisation system and fuel
management system can be shown in easy to understand line diagram
format on MFDs.
The MFDs can be reconfigured in the event of a failure in a
particular display.

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Systems Interface: Communications (1)


Need for two ways communication between the ground bases/ATC
and the aircraft or between aircrafts.
A radio transmitter and receiver equipment was the first avionic
system to be installed in an aircraft and goes back as far as 1909
(Marconi Company).
The radio communication suite on modern aircraft covers several
operating frequency bands:
Type of communication range

ITU Frequency band

Frequncy range

Long range communication

high frequency (HF)

2-30 MHz

Near to medium range (civil)

very high frequency (VHF)

30-100 MHz

Near to medium range (military)

ultra high frequency (UHF)

250-400 MHz

VHF and UHF are line of sight propagation systems.


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Systems Interface: Communications (2)


Equipment is usually at duplex level of redundancy; the VHF
radios are generally at triplex level on a modern airliner.
Satellite communications (SATCOM) systems are also being
installed in many modern aircraft. SATCOM able to provide very
reliable world wide communication.

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Systems Interface: Data Entry and Control


Data entry and control systems are essential for the crew to interact
with the avionic systems.
Data entry and control systems range from:
Keyboards
Touch Panels
Direct Voice Input (DVI) control exploiting speech recognition technology
Voice warning systems exploiting speech synthesisers.

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Systems Interface: Flight Control Systems (1)


Flight Control Systems exploit electronic systems technology in two
areas, namely auto stabilisation (or stability augmentation) systems and
Fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control systems.
Most swept wing jet aircraft exhibit a lightly damped short period
oscillatory motion about the yaw and roll axes at certain height and speed
conditions, known as Dutch roll, and require at least a yaw autostabiliser system to damp and suppress this motion; a roll auto-stabiliser
system may also be required.
The short period motion about the pitch axis can be insufficiently damp
and a pitch auto-stabiliser system is necessary.
Modern aircrafts require three axis auto-stabilisation systems to achieve
acceptable control and handling characteristics across the flight envelop.
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Systems Interface: Flight Control Systems (2)


FBW flight control enables production of lighter, higher
performance aircraft compared with an equivalent conventional
design by allowing the aircraft to be designed with a reduced or
negative natural aerodynamic stability.
FBW provides continuous automatic stabilisation of the aircraft by
computer control of the control surfaces from appropriate motion
sensors.
The system can be designed to give the pilot a manoeuvre
command control which provides excellent control and handling
characteristics across the flight envelope.

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Systems Interface: Flight Control Systems (3)


Care free manoeuvring characteristics can also be achieved by
automatically limiting the pilots commands according to the
aircrafts state.
A very high integrity, failure survival system is of course essential
for FBW flight control.

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Aircraft State Sensor System


These comprise
the air data systems
the inertial sensor systems

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Aircraft State Sensor System: Air Data System


Accurate information on the air data quantities essential for the
control and navigation of the aircraft, that is
pressure altitude vertical speed
Mach number
true airspeed
air density ratio airstream incidence angle

calibrated airspeed
static air temperature

The air data computing system computes these quantities from


outputs of very accurate sensors which measure the static pressure,
total pressure and the outside air temperature.
The airstream incidence angle is derived from airstream incidence
sensor.
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Aircraft State Sensor System: Air Data System


Schematic of a typical aircraft air data system

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Aircraft State Sensor System:


Inertial Sensor System (1)
The aircraft attitude and the direction in which it is heading are
essential information for the pilot in executing a manoeuvre or flying
in conditions of poor visibility, flying in clouds or at night.
Accurate attitude and heading information are required by a
number of avionic subsystems, for example, the autopilot and
navigation system (for civil) and weapon aiming system (for
military).
ISS provides attitude and heading information. These comprise a
set of gyros and accelerometers which measure the aircrafts angular
and linear motion about the aircraft axes, together with a computing
system which derives the aircrafts attitude and heading from the
gyro and accelerometer outputs.
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Aircraft State Sensor System:


Inertial Sensor System (2)
Modern attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS) use a strapped
down (or body mounted) configuration of gyros and accelerometers as
opposed to earlier gimballed systems.
The used of a very high accuracy gyros and accelerometers to measure
the aircrafts motion enables an inertial navigation system (INS) to be
mechanised which provides very accurate attitude and heading information
together with the aircrafts velocity and position data (ground speed, track
angle and latitude/longitude coordinates).
The INS in conjuction with the air data system also provides the aircraft
velocity vector information.
The INS is a very important aircraft state sensor system it is completely
self-contained and does not require any access from outside world.
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Navigation System
Accurate navigation information, i.e the aircrafts position, ground
speed, and track angle (direction of motion of the aircraft relative to
true North) is essential to the aircrafts mission.
Navigation systems can be divided into
dead reckoning systems
position fixing systems

both types are required in the aircraft.

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Navigation System: Dead Reckoning


DR navigation systems derive the vehicles present position by estimating
the distance travelled from a known position from a knowledge of the
speed and the direction of motion of the vehicle.
Major advantage: self contained and independent of external systems.
The main type of DR navigation systems:
a) Inertial navigation system. The most accurate and widely used.
b) Doppler/heading reference systems. Widely used in helicopters.
c) Air data/heading reference systems. Mainly used as a reversionary
navigation system, lower accuracy than (a) and (b).
A characteristics of all DR navigation systems is that the position error
builds up with time and thus it is necessary to correct DR position error and
update the system from position fixes derived from a position fixing system.
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Navigation System: Position Fixing


Position fixing systems used are now mainly radio navigation systems based
on satellite or ground based transmitter. A suitable receiver in the aircraft with
a supporting computer is then used to derive the aircrafts position from the
signals received from the transmitters.
The prime position fixing system is GPS (global positioning system). This is
a satellite navigation system fully operational in 1989.
Other radio navigation aids such as VOR/DME and TACAN which provides
the range and bearing of the aircraft from ground beacon transmitters located
to provide coverage of the main air routes.
Approach guidance to the airport in conditions of poor visibility is provided
by instrument landing systems (ILS) or later by microwave landing systems
(MLS)
A full navigation suite on an aircraft can include all of these. Many of these
systems are duplex level and some may be at triplex level.
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Outside World Sensor Systems


These systems, which comprise both radar and infrared sensor,
systems enable all weather and night time operation and transform
the operational capability of aircraft or helicopter.

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Outside World Sensor Systems:


Radar Systems (1)
Weather radar installed in all civil airliners and in many GA aircrafts.
The radar looks ahead of the aircraft and detect water droplets and
provide warning of storms, cloud turbulence and sever precipitation so
aircraft can alter course and avoid such conditions, if possible.
In severe turbulence, the violence of the vertical gusts can subject the
aircraft structure to a very high loads and stresses.
These radar can operate in ground mapping and terrance avoidance
modes.
Modern fighter jet have a ground attack role as well as prime interception
role and carry very sophisticated multi-mode radars to enable them to fulfil
these dual roles.

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Outside World Sensor Systems:


Radar Systems (2)
In the airborne interception (AI) mode, the radar must be able to detect
aircraft up to 100 miles away and track while scanning and keeping tabs on
several aircraft simultaneously (typically at least 12 aircrafts). The radar
must also have a look down capability and be able to track low flying
aircraft below it.
In the ground attack or mapping mode, the radar system is able to
generate a map type display from the radar returns from the ground,
enabling specific terrain features to be identified for position fixing and
target acquisition.

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Outside World Sensor Systems: Infrared Systems


Major advantage: entirely passive systems.
Infrared (IR) sensor systems can be used to provide a video picture of the
thermal image scene of the outside world either using a fixed FLIR sensor,
or a gimballed IR imaging sensor.
The thermal image picture at night looks like the visual picture in
daytime, but highlight heat sources, such as vehicle engines, enabling real
targets to be discriminated from camouflaged decoys.
An IR system can be used in search and track mode; the passive detection
and tracking of targets from their IR emissions is of high operational value
as it confers an all important elements of surprise.
FLIR can be installed in civil aircraft to provide enhance vision in poor
visibility conditions in conjunction with a HUD.
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Task Automation Systems


These comprise the systems which reduce the crew workload and
enable minimum crew operation by automating and managing as
many tasks as appropriate so that the crew role is a supervisory
management.
The tasks and roles are as follows:
Navigation management system
Autopilots and flight management systems
House keeping management

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Task Automation Systems:


Navigation Management System
Navigation management comprises the operation of all the radio
navigation aid systems and the combination of the data from all the
navigation sources, such as GPS and the INS systems, to provide the
best possible estimate of the aircraft position, ground speed and
track.
The system then derives the steering commands for the autopilot so
that the aircraft automatically follows the planned navigation route,
including any changes in heading as particular waypoints are reach
along the route to the destination.
Note: This function is carried out by the flight management system
(FMS) if installed.
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Task Automation Systems:


Autopilots and Flight Management System (1)
The autopilot and FMS have been grouped together because of the
very close degree of integration between these systems on modern
civil aircraft.
Note: Autopilot is a stand alone system and not all aircraft are
equipped with an FMS.
The autopilot relieves the pilot of the need to fly the aircraft
continually with the consequent tedium and fatigue and so enables
the pilot to concentrate on other tasks associated with the mission.
Basic modes: height hold and heading hold
A suitably designed high integrity autopilot systems can provide a
very precise control of the aircraft flight path for such applications a
s automatic landing in poor or even zero visibility conditions.
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Task Automation Systems:


Autopilots and Flight Management System (2)
In military applications, the autopilot system in conjunction with a
suitable guidance system provide automatic terrain following, or even
terrain avoidance. This enables the aircraft to fly automatically at high
speed at very low altitudes (100 to 200 ft) so that aircraft can take
advantage of terrain screening and stay below the radar horizon of enemy
radars.
Sophisticated FMS enabled two crew operation of the jet airliner.
FMS includes: Flight planning, navigation management, engine control to
maintain planned speed or Mach number, control of the aircraft flight path
to follow optimised planned route, control of the vertical flight profile,
Ensuring the aircraft is at the planned 3D position at ath planned time slot:
often reffered as 4D navigation, flight envelope monitoring, and
minimising fuel consumption.
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Task Automation Systems:


Engine Control and Management (1)
Task covers the control and the efficient management and
monitoring of the engines.
Electronic components forms an integral part of the engine and is
essential for its operation.
Many modern jet engines have a full authority digital engine
control system (FADEC), which automatically controls the flow of
fuel to the engine combustion chambers by the fuel control units so
as to provide a closed loop control of engine thrust in response to the
throttle command.
The control system ensures the engine limits in terms of
temperatures, engine speeds and accelerations are not exceeded and
the engine responds in an optimum manner to the throttle command.
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Task Automation Systems:


Engine Control and Management (2)
The system is known as full authority in terms of the control it can
exercise on the engine and a high integrity failure survival control
system is essential. Otherwise a failure in the system could seriously
damage the engine and hazard the safety of the aircraft.
A FADEC engine control systems is similar in many ways to a
FBW flight control system.
Other engine avionic systems: engine health monitoring systems
which measure, process and record a very wide range of parameters
associated with the performance and health of the engines. These
give early warning of engine performance deterioration, excessive
wear, fatigue damage, high vibration levels, excessive temperature
levels.
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Task Automation Systems:


House Keeping Management
Cover the automation of the aircraft background tasks such as:
Fuel Management
Fuel flow and fuel quantity measurement and control of fuel transfer from the
appropriate fuel tanks to minimise changes in the aircraft trim.

Electrical power supply system management


Hydraulic power supply system management
Cabin/cockpit pressurisation systems
Environmental control system
Warning system
Maintenance and monitoring systems.
These comprise monitoring and recording systems which are integrated into an
on-board maintenance computer system. This provides the information to enable
speedy diagnosis and rectification of equipment and system failures by pinpointing faulty units and providing all the information for replacement units.
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Importance and Role of Avionics (5)


The visible impact of the avionic systems on a modern aircrat can
best be seen in the cockpits where the outputs of various system just
described are displayed on the HUD and the colour HDDs.
Figure Airbus A340 long range airliner.

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Importance and Role of Avionics (6)


Figure Airbus A340 flight deck main panel.

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Importance and Role of Avionics (7)


Figure Airbus A340 flight deck

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Importance and Role of Avionics (8)


An optimised layout of six colour CRT displays ensures that each
of the two crew members can easily assimilate all relevant data, the
screen being sized so that no eye scanning in necessary, In front of
each pilot is a primary flight display (PFD) and a navigation display
(ND); the remaining two screens display engine and systems data.
The pilots side stick controllers can be seen at the sides of the
flight deck; the FBW flight control system eliminates the bulky
control column between the pilots and instruments of earlier
generation aircraft, which ensures an unobstructed view of displays.
There are three multi-purpose control and display units (MCDU):
to access the flight management system and to give systems
maintenance data in the air and on the ground.
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Importance and Role of Avionics (9)


Figure Eurofighter Typhoon

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Importance and Role of Avionics (10)


Figure Eurofighter Typhoon cockpit

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Importance and Role of Avionics (11)


Eurofighter Typhoon is jointly developed by the UK, Germany,
Italy and Spain. It is a high agility single seat fighter with a ground
attack capability.
The foreplane and elevons provide positive trim lift so that it it
highly unstable in pitch at subsonic speeds (time to double pitch
amplitude after a gust is around 0.2 s).
It is unstable in yaw at supersonic speeds because of the reduced
fin size.
A high integrity FBW flight control system compensates for the
lack of natural stability and provides excellent control and handling
characteristics across the flight envelop and under all loading
conditions.
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Importance and Role of Avionics (12)


The Typhoon cockpit is designed to deliver optimum levels of
tactical and functional information to the pilot without overloading
him. The wide field of view holographic HUD and the HDDs,
including the centrally located video colour map display, can be seen
together with the small centrally mounted pilots control stick for the
FBW flight control system. The unobstructed view of the displays
resulting from the use of a small control stick is apparent.

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