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Definition of Mortality

Rate

occurrence of death in a defined

population during a specified interval.

the number of deaths that occur in a

particular time or place

There are several specific kinds of

mortality rates, but we will focus only on

the ones that are used most often in

Population data.

Types of Mortality

Infant mortality-The infant mortality rate is an

estimate of the number of infant deaths for every

1,000 live births.

This rate is often used as an indicator to measure

the health and well-being of a nation, because

factors affecting the health of entire populations

can also impact the mortality rate of infants.

The statistical rate of infant death during the first

year after live birth, expressed as the number of

such deaths per 1000 live births in a specific

geographic area or institution in a given period.

Neonatal mortality (death within 28 days of birth)

accounts for 70% of infant mortality.

Types of Mortality(Cont.)

The number of maternal deaths per 100,000

live births.

The statistic excludes women who die from

ruptured ectopic pregnancy or any other

condition in which there was no birth (stillbirth,

septic abortion).

The crude mortality rate is the mortality rate

from all causes of death for a population

during a specified time period.

The most commonly used values for 10 are

1,000 and 100,000.

Examples of Ratios:

R = observed number of AIDS cases in Ghana

during June

expected number of AIDS cases in Ghana

during June

20 cases for expected data

Example: 40 cases / 20 cases = 2

No units

Three kinds of frequency measures are used

with two-category variables (also called

dichotomous variables). These frequency

measures are

Ratios

Proportions, and

Rates.

Ratios, Proportions,

Rates

Before you learn about specific measures,

it is important to understand the

relationship between the three types of

measures and how they differ. All three

measures are based on the same formula:

Ratio, proportion, rate = x/y x 10

Ratios, Proportions,

Rates

In this formula, x and y are the two quantities

that are being compared.

The formula shows that x is divided by y.

10 is a constant that we use to transform the

result of the division into a uniform quantity.

The size of 10 may equal 1, 10, 100, 1000 and so

on depending on the value of n.

Example: 102 = 10 x 10 = 100

103 = 10 x 10 x 10 = 1000

105 = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 100,000

Proportions

The second type of ratio, in which x is part of

y, is also called a proportion (as in the

previous "female/all" example).

Proportions are usually expressed as

percentages.

Proportions

independent x and y:

During the first 9 months of national

surveillance for HIV infections, NPC

received 1,068 case reports that

specified sex; 893 cases were in

females, 175 in males. Here is the

method for calculating the female-tomale ratio for HIV infections:

Proportions

1. Define x and y:

x = cases in females

y = cases in males

2. Identify x and y: x = 893 y = 175

3. Set up the ratio x/y: 893/175

equals 1. Female to male = 893/175 =

5.1/1

Proportions

5. Express the ratio in one of the

following ways: 5.1 to 1, or 5.1:1, or

5.1/1

Thus, there were just over 5 female HIV

patients for each male EMS patient

reported to NPC.

Rates

The third type of frequency measure

used with two-category (dichotomous)

variables is a rate. Rates have the

added dimension of time. Rates

measure the occurrence of an event in

a population over time. The basic

formula for a rate is:

Rates

Rate= Number of cases Occurring during a given

time period x 10n

Population at Risk During the same time period

population. They reflect groupings of people

based on time, place and person.

Time: a specific year, month, week, day or hour

Place: country, state, county, township, school,

institution, area

Person: age, sex, membership in some group or

class

Rates

Rates take into account the size of the

population, so comparisons can be made

across different population groups.

By using rates instead of raw numbers,

the occurrence of disease in one group

can be fairly compared with another.

Example: males with females; one Region

with another; Greater Accra Region with

Ashanti Region.

Rates

To calculate a rate, one must have an

estimate of the population at risk during a

specific time period for the denominator.

Ratios and proportions do not require this.

Earlier, we calculated ratios and proportions of

HIV cases without knowing the number of

people at risk of HIV.

Rates may be harder to get, because accurate

denominator data may not be available for

small, localized population groups.

Rates

A rate is always a ratio

A rate may or may not be a proportion

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