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Chapter 12

Chapter 2
Voltage, Current and Resistance
Principlesof
ofElectric
ElectricCircuits
Circuits- -Floyd
Floyd
Principles

Chapter 2

Objectives

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 2

Summary

The Bohr atom is a tool for visualizing atomic structure.


The nucleus is positively charged
and has the protons and neutrons.
Electrons are negatively
charged and in discrete shells.
The atomic number is the number
of protons and determines the
particular element.
In the neutral atom, the number
of electrons is equal to the
number of protons.
Electron
Nov 25, 2016
Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Proton

Neutron

Chapter 2

Summary

There is a force (F) between charges. Like


charges repel; unlike charges attract.
The force is directly proportional to charge.
The force is inversely proportional to square of distance.

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 2

Summary

Voltage is the work per charge


done against the electric field.

W
V
Q
Nov 25, 2016
Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

e-

Chapter 2

Summary

Definition of voltage
V

W
Q

One volt is the potential difference (voltage) between


two points when one joule of energy is used to move
one coulomb of charge from one point to the other.

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 2

Summary

Voltage
Voltage is responsible for establishing current.
Sources of voltage
include batteries, solar
cells, and generators. A
Cu-Zn battery, such as
you might construct in
a chemistry class, is
shown.

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 2

Summary

Current (I) is the amount of charge (Q) that


flows past a point in a unit of time (t).
Q
I
t

One ampere is a number of electrons having a total charge of 1 C


move through a given cross section in 1 s.

What is the current if 2 C passes a point in 5 s? 0.4 A


Nov 25, 2016
Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 2

Summary

Current Source
As you know, an ideal voltage source can
provide a constant voltage for any load. An ideal
current source can provide a constant current in
any load.

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

10

Chapter 2
DC Current vs. AC Current

Direct current (DC) flows in one direction in the circuit.


Alternating current (AC) flows first in one direction then in
the opposite direction.
The same definitions apply to alternating voltage (AC
voltage):
DC voltage has a fixed polarity.
AC voltage switches polarity back and forth.

Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

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Chapter 2

11

DC Current

Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

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Chapter 2

12

AC Current and Voltage

Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

12

Chapter 2

13

Summary

Resistance is the opposition to current.


One ohm (1 ) is the resistance if one ampere (1 A) is in a
material when one volt (1 V) is applied.
C
o
n
d
u Components designed to have a specific amount of resistance are
c called resistors.
t
a
n
c
e
Nov 25, 2016
isof Electric Circuits - Floyd
Principles
G

Colorbands

Resistancematerial
(carboncomposition)

Insulationcoating
Leads

1
R

Chapter 2

Summary
Color

Resistancevalue,firstthreebands:
Firstband 1stdigit
Secondband 2nddigit
*Thirdband multiplier(numberof
zerosfollowingthe2nddigit)

Fourthband tolerance

14
Digit

Multiplier Tolerance

Black

10 0

Brown

10 1

1%(fiveband)

Red

10 2

2%(fiveband)

Orange

10 3

Yellow

10 4

Green

10 5

Blue

10 6

Violet

10 7

Gray

10 8

White

10 9

Gold

5%

10 1

5%(fourband)

Silver

10%

10 2

10%(fourband)

Noband

20%

* Forresistancevalueslessthan10
,thethirdbandiseithergoldorsilver. Goldisforamultiplierof0.1andsilverisfor
amultiplierof0.01.

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 2

Summary
What is the resistance and tolerance of
each of the four-band resistors?
5.1 k5%
k 10%
47 10%
10 k 5%

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

15

Chapter 2

16

Summary

Variable resistors include the potentiometer


and rheostat. A potentiometer can be
connected as a rheostat.
The center terminal is connected to the wiper
Shaft
Wiper

Variable
(potentiometer)
Resistive
element

Variable
(rheostat)

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 2

17

Summary

A basic circuit consists of 1) a voltage source,


2) a path and 3) a load. An example of a basic
circuit is the flashlight, which has each of these.

Sw it ch

Met alreflect o r

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Met al stri p

Sp ri n g

Chapter 2

Summary

An important
multipurpose
instrument is the
DMM, which can
measure voltage,
current, and
resistance. Many
include other
measurement
options.
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Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

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OFF

VH
Hz
VH

mV H

V
A

1 0A

VV

4 0m A

COM

Chapter 2

19

Voltmeters are connected in parallel with the component(s).

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Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

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Chapter 2

20

Ammeters are connected in series with the component(s).

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

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Chapter 2

Selected Key Terms

Ampere Theunitofelectricalcurrent

Charge Anelectricalpropertyofmatterthatexists
becauseofanexcessoradeficiencyof
electrons.Chargecanbeeither+or.
Circuit An interconnection of electronic components
designed to produce a desired result. A basic
circuit consists of a source, a load, and an
interconnecting path.

Nov 25, 2016


Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

21

Chapter 2

Selected Key Terms

22

Conductance Theabilityofacircuittoallowcurrent.Theunit
istheSiemens(S).
Coulomb Theunitofelectricalcharge.

Current The rate of flow of electrical charge.


Electron Abasicparticleofelectricalchargeinmatter.
Theelectronpossessesanegativecharge.
Ground Thecommonorreferencepointinacircuit.
Ohm () Theunit of resistance.
Nov 25, 2016
Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 2

Selected Key Terms

23

Potentiometer Athreeterminalvariableresistor.

Resistance The opposition to current. the unit is the ohm ().


Rheostat Atwoterminalvariableresistor.
Siemens Theunitofconductance
Volt Theunitofvoltageorelectromotiveforce.
Voltage Theamountofenergyperchargeavailableto
moveelectronsfromonepointtoanotherinan
electriccircuit.
Nov 25, 2016
Principles
of Electric Circuits - Floyd