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Two Dimensions

of Writing

Consolidatory Writing
It is an activity which is
primarily designed to reinforce
oral skills.
It provides opportunity in

Basic structures
Grammar
Rules and Lexical Items
Rhetorical Pattern

Free Writing
Free Compositions
It focuses on the
creative use of
language in
communication of
ideas.

Examples of fully controlled


writing exercises:

1. Copying sentences and


paragraphs.
2. Taking down sentences and
paragraphs from dictation.
3. Rewriting sentences and
selecting the correct word or
expression from parenthesis.
The child was punished for
her _______. (obey)

4. Substituting correct
grammatical forms and
structures.
5. Substituting correct
expression or vocabulary term.
I bet youget married[A] before
Iget married[A].
I bet youget married[A] before
Ido[B].

6. Substituting specific and vivid


forms for general words and
items.
Wordy: Jenbelieved but could
not confirmthat Nickhad
feelings of affection forher. (14
words)
Concise: Jenassumedthat
Nickadoredher. (6 words)

7. Rewriting sentences and


passages and supplying the correct
forms and appropriate expressions.
Wrong:
1. My father knows well to teach
English.
Correct:
1. My father knows how to teach
English well.

8. Completing sentences in a
paragraph.
9. Completing a paragraph by
supplying the missing details.
10. Writing a paragraph through a
series of questions.
11. Conversion of statements,
questions and commands.

12. Transformation of sentences


containing structures and vocabulary
items learned.
13. Writing a question for a given
statements.
14. Writing a question suggested by a
given answer.
15. Writing an outline based on unsorted
list of items or situations.

16. Joining sentences.


17. Combining pair of sentences into
one sentence which meet a given
statement.
18. Rearranging sentences into a
story.
19. Paraphrasing sentences.
20. Paraphrasing paragraphs.

21. Writing an outline and a paragraph


based on notes taken from dictations.
22. Writing dialogue similar to those in
the oral practice exercises,
substituting the pupils personal
circumstances.
23. Writing a connected story from a
given set of sentences.

Examples of controlled writing


or guided writing activities:

1. Writing sentences making use


of structures or vocabulary
learned.
2. Writing questions about reading
passage or listening
comprehension passage.
3. Writing sentences containing
the structures presented, based
on set of key words.
4. Writing a paragraph based on
key sentences.

5. Writing an imaginary conversion


based on a given situations.
6. Writing compositions in the
style of a given passage or
discourse.
7. Writing about personal
experiences and observations
based on given situation.
8. Retelling the story.
9. Finishing a story.

10. Imitating model paragraph.


11. Writing ones reactions to the
main ideas in the passages for
reading and listening
comprehension.
12. Writing paragraphs that
explain, illustrate, list details,
compare and contrast, state
reasons, define.

Examples of free
writing experience:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Personal notes and letters


Business notes and letters
Simple narration
Description
Explanation
Argumentation