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THE MEASUREMENT OF TOURISM

DEMAND: TOURISM STATISTICS

Definition
Tourism statistics are typically measurements of
arrivals, trips, tourist nights and expenditure, and these
often appear in total or split into categories such as
business and leisure travel. They are normally estimates,
often based on sample surveys with grossing-up
procedures, and are liable to large errors.

WHAT IS MEASURED?
There are three main categories of tourism statistics,
some time is known as Measurement of demand
1. Statistics of volume
2. Statistics of value
3. Statistics of profiles

Volume statistics
Volume of statistics measure the total number of international
tourist arrivals/departures in the given time period.
Such a measure relates to trips and not individuals in the
sense that, for example, a businessman who makes 10 trips
in a year is counted 10 times.
A disadvantage of using this particular measure is that it does
not take account of the length of stay.
Number of trips = number of individuals x average number of
trips taken per individual

Expenditure statistics
This is third type of tourism statistics that measure total visitor
expenditure, the measurement of tourist expenditure can be
obtained by: asking tourists directly how much they have spent on their holiday.
indirectly by asking hoteliers and other suppliers of tourist services
for estimates of tourist spending.
For international expenditure statistics, bank records of foreign
currency exchange may be used as another indirect method.
Tourism expenditure refers to the amount paid for the acquisition
of consumption goods and services, as well as valuables, for own use
or to give away, for and during tourism trips.

Some Of Tourist Expenditures


Expenditure for accommodation
Expenditure for food and drink
Expenditure for entertainment
Expenditure for shopping
Expenditure for travel within the host country

Profile statistics
Statistics relating to the profile of the tourist
typically include details of age, sex, occupation,
income, nationality or country of residence and
group type.
The profile of the visit or trip covers origin,
destination, timing of visit, purpose of visit, mode
of transport, type of accommodation, details of
activities engaged in and places visited and
whether the visit is part of a tour or is
independently organized

VISITOR PROFILE STATISTICS


THE VISITOR

THE VISIT
Origin And Destination

Age
Sex
Group Type (E.G. Alone, Family)
Nationality Or Country Of Residence
Occupation
Income

Mode Of Transport
Purpose Of Visit
Length Of Stay
Accommodation Used
Activities engaged In
Places Visited
Tour Or Independently Organized

Four principal reasons for


statistical measurement in
tourism
To evaluate the magnitude and significance of tourism to a
destination area or region;
To quantify the contribution to the economy or society, especially
the effect on the balance of payments;
To assist in the planning and development of tourism infrastructure
and the effect of different volumes of tourists with specific needs;
To assist in the evaluation and implementation of marketing and
promotion activities where the tourism marketer requires
information on the actual and potential markets and their
characteristics.

MEASUREMENT METHODS USED


Tourism statistics relating to international tourism are
normally estimates rather than exact values.
Volume statistics are often obtained using counting
procedures at entry and exit points to a country, or (for
inbound tourism) sometimes through the use of
registration forms at accommodation establishments.

Statistics of Domestic Tourism


Domestic tourism refers to trips undertaken by residents of a
country within the national territory of that country.
What is measured?
Baseline requirements might be considered to be domestic tourism
arrivals and nights classified by:
o the month concerned;
o the type and class of accommodation establishment;
o the location of the accommodation establishment; and
o overall expenditure on domestic tourism.

Main Uses Of Domestic Tourism


Statistics.
(1) To measure the contribution of tourism to the
overall economy. The authorities responsible for
tourism wish to know its contribution to the Gross
Domestic Product. Because of the complex nature of the
tourism sector, there are enormous problems involved in
this calculation nevertheless estimates are produced.
(2) For
promotion
and
marketing
policies.
Increasingly countries are aware of the need to
encourage nationals to spend holidays within their
country rather than abroad, and develop campaigns to
this end.

(3) To assist area development policies.


Many governments assume responsibility for the
geographical distribution of domestic tourism with the
dual aim of ensuring a better quality of the environment
in the principal tourism areas, and to promote
underdeveloped areas and relieve congested areas.
(4) To aid social policies.
A small but increasing number of authorities provide aid
for the underprivileged, either directly for holidays or in
the form of subsidies for the construction and operation
of socially orientated tourist reception plants. Because of
the financial implications, a statistical knowledge of
holiday-taking habits and trends by nationals is required
for the formation of policies.

Household surveys
Household surveys, where the residents of a country
are interviewed in their own home to ascertain
information of tourist trips for the purpose of pleasure.
Household surveys are suitable for recording the
tourism of large numbers of people, and residents of a
country, whether they travel within the country, or
abroad, can be contacted in their home.

DESTINATION SURVEYS
Often conducted at popular tourist destinations or in
areas where there are high levels of tourist activity
Form of personal interviews
PROBLEM: ensure that the sample of visitors are
representative

SURVEYS OF SUPPLIERS
Undertaken in order to gain information on occupancy
rates, visitor numbers, etc.
Accommodation occupancy surveys are common
worldwide

EN ROUTE SURVEYS
Surveys of travelers during course of their journey
Strategic points are selected on key surface transport
routes
PROBLEM: representativeness of the sample