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CITIES OF

DIFFERENCE
In-Equality
Marginalisation Fear

The Politics Of Urban Differences

CONSENSUS TO
CONFLICT

CONTENT
1. Cities of Differences
I. In-equality
II. Marginalisation
III. Fear
1. The Politics Of Urban Diferrence
.Consensus To Conflict

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INTRODUCTION

The worlds population is rapidly urbanizing. The signs are inescapable. In the early 1800s,
roughly three per cent of the worlds population lived in cities. Today the proportion is well over
half, and in the next fifty years will increase to two thirds. In 2011 there were 480 cities with
populations exceeding one million as compared to just 80 in 1950. More than three billion people
currently reside in urban centers and this figure is expected to rise to five billion by 2050.
Perhaps most striking is the fact that virtually all population growth in the coming decades will
occur in low- and middle-income settings. Global population growth is overwhelmingly
concentrated in marginal urban and surrounding periphery contexts, especially slums.

Cities are not only critical nodes of governance in the global North
and South, but also play a 'critical role in the processes of state
consolidation, transformation and erosion' (Beall, Goodfellow and
Rodgers 2013: 1). Indeed, as Tilly (2010) argued, the changing
relationships between cities and states can help us understand the
centrality of cities in such processes.

Diversity is good, but along with it comes the differences


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CITIES OF DIFFERENCE
In-Equality Marginalisation - Fear

The Major factors affecting the Cities and its development is the sociological aspects of the city
Social inequalityis the existence of unequal opportunities and rewards
for differentsocialpositions or statuses within a group or society. Two
approaches exist to explain why poverty exists. One explanation is to blame
the poor; the other is to blame society.
Social Marginalisation or exclusion is the process in which individuals
or people are systematically blocked from (or denied full access to) various
rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members
of a different group, and which are fundamental to social integration within
that particular group (e.g., housing, employment, healthcare, civic
engagement, democratic participation,).
Culture offear(or climate offear) Socialogical Fear is the concept that
people may incitefearin the general public to achieve political goals
through emotional bias. It is also a term applied to the workplace.

Diversity is good, but along with it comes the differences


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IN-QUALITY
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Social inequality is
theexistenceof unequal
opportunities and rewards for
different social positions or
statuses within a group or
society. Let's examine some
causes and effects of poverty
and test our knowledge with a
quiz.

Addressing inequalities is
INQUALITY
important not only for
economic growth,
development and
Millennium Development
Goal (MDG) achievement
but also from a peace and
security perspective.
Horizontal inequalities
increase the risk of violent
conflict, and violence and
conflict can worsen
inequalities. This paper
analyzes how inequalities,
violent conflicts, and the
relation between them, are
holding back development,
adding to the arguments
for addressing them in the
post-2015 framework.

SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS


OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

City Of Diferrences : Ineuality Marginalisation

INQUALITY
Evidence that various inequalities
economic, political, cultural,
gender and those related to
security, justice and social
services can heighten group
grievances and lead to conflict in
diverse contexts around the
world. For example, access to
social services has fuelled intergroup hostility in Kosovo; gender
inequality has perpetuated
violence against women in
Melanesia; political exclusion has
underpinned destabilizing protests
and violence in Yemen; and
unequal security and justice
provision has deepened conflict
divides in many countries across
Africa and South and Central Asia.

SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS


OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

City Of Diferrences : Ineuality Marginalisation Fear

INQUALITY
This evidence is strong enough for
policy makers to take action on
inequality even though more
research is needed on particular
types of inequality, for example
those related to gender, security
and justice. There needs to be a
focus on strengthening the
relations among groups to build
confidence and mitigate the
divisions that can lead to conflict,
violence and underdevelopment.
This can be achieved through
addressing inequality through
inclusion, fairness,
responsiveness, accountability to
all social groups, and measures to
strengthen inter-group relations.

City Of Diferrences : Inequality Marginalisation

SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS


OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

INQUALITY
City Of Diferrences

Based on the evidence and analysis presented, policy options to


address inequalities include the following:
Equality can be recognized as one of the guiding principles
underpinning the whole framework;
One or more goals can specifically focus on inequality, for
example by type of inequality (social equality, economic
equality, political equality), similar on gender equality;
Inequalities could be integrated as a concern into goals and
targets on different sectoral/thematic issues (politics, security,
justice, health, education, poverty), through language
stressing inclusion, fairness, responsiveness and accountability to
all social groups throughout the framework;
Indicators can be better disaggregated by more categories to
show attainment of development benefits by different groups
within society, and an inequality measure could be added for each
indicator; and
Progress towards goals can be weighted to ensure that progress
on inequality scores higher.

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INQUALITY
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There are increasing concerns about persistent and


often rising inequalities. These concerns reflect their
detrimental effects on economic growth, development
and the Millennium Development Goals. The negative
impact of inequalities on the likelihood of violent
conflict often receives much less attention.

The reasons why addressing inequalities is also important from a peace and
security perspective. It will present evidence of the effect that various types
of horizontal inequalities have on violent conflict and suggest ways how this
can be accounted for in the post-2015.

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10

INQUALITY
The Concept
The predominant form of violent
conflict has changed dramatically in
recent decades, from national armies
fighting each other (inter-state wars);
to armies fighting for independence,
separation or political control (intrastate or civil wars); to various forms
of violence, involving non-state
actors, such as rebels, gangs and
organized crime (World Bank, 2011).
There are countless little wars with
no front lines, no battlefields, no
clear conflict zones and no
distinctions between combatants and
civilians (Reno, 2011). Violence might
involve rag-tag rebels, gangs,
organized crime and high homicide
rates. In fact, in a number of Central
American countries, homicide rates
are higher presently than during their
civil wars (World Bank, 2011).
SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS
OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

City Of Diferrences : Inequality Marginalisation Fear

11

INQUALITY Horizontal In-equalities


The empirical work on the causes of violent
conflicts was for some time dominated by the
greed vs. grievance debate.

Social horizontal inequalities are also important to


consider in the context of conflict. For example,
recent econometric research has pointed to a
correlation between variance in child mortality rates
across groups and conflict

Attempts have been made to relate political


inequalities to conflict

They test hypotheses connecting ethnic groups access to power and


conflict. Their results show that the frequency of conflict increases roughly
with the degree of exclusion. Excluded groups are much more likely to
experience a rebellion in their name compared with groups in power .
The potential for inequalities of different kinds to worsen intergroup relations is also significant in that intergroup relations have
been found to be correlated with levels of peace/conflict.

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INQUALITY Horizontal In-equalities


Further research is needed on how security-related inequalities
can drive conflict, but existing evidence suggests that a strong
argument can be made about the importance of the security
dimension of inequality as a driver of conflict in many contexts.

Inequality in the justice sector as a driver of conflict also requires


further research. CIC believes justice to be an important part of
peaceful recovery. At the same time it finds that: the lack of
rigorous work on the justice components of recovery results in
confusion (Jones & Elgin-Cossart, 2011)

Although violence against women is (with some exceptions) not


usually organized, its pervasive nature, the targeting of a
specific social group and the widespread failure of states to
prevent and respond to it arguably make it systemic, placing it
within the scope of organized violence
There is considerable evidence that gender inequality in the
form of social, economic, legal and political inequalities is a root
cause of violence against women
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INQUALITY
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14

INQUALITY
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CASTE SYSTEM

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INQUALITY
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CASTE VS. CLASS


Using differentiate between the caste and class system.

In short, how does the class system differ?

VS.

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INQUALITY

Any questions
prior to the
social
inequality?

SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS


OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

City Of Diferrences : Ineuality Marginalisation Fear

17

MARGINALISATIO
N
City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

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WHAT IS
MARGINALISATI
ON?

Marginalization is
forcing a person or a
particular group of a
particular society to be
away from the
mainstream of the
society by denying him
or it all the rights and
opportunities for
developing himself or
itself by getting
education and
participating in such
developmental
activities.

SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS


OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

City Of Diferrences : Ineuality Marginalisation

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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

What is Social Discrimination?


Discrimination is treating different
categories of people of a society or group
in different manner that some categories
among them are treated with injustice
and prejudice by denying them privileges
that are offered to the other categories
because of some hidden causes .

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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

What is Social Exclusion?


Social Exclusion is making a person or
a particular group of a particular
society out of the social order by
denying them even the most primary
human rights. It is a severe than
marginalization that in
marginalization, such groups enjoy the
basic rights, though they are forced to
remain at a corner of the society
without getting opportunity for
developing themselves, as the
privileged groups do.
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MARGINALISATION
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It is clear that Marginalization and Social


Exclusion Occur When there is Social
Discrimination

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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

Discrimination may occur at two levels.


They are
1. Individual
2. Social

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City Of Diferrences

MARGINALISATION
Individual discrimination

Social Discrimination

Individual discrimination is when

Social discrimination occur when a

an individual is denied the


provisions and rights give to
others in a society on account of
some prejudice. Individual
discrimination occurs in families,
in classrooms, and at times in
society itself on account of
prejudice of parents, lack of skill
in classrooms, or because of
some epidemic called aids.
City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

particular group of a particular


society is denied the provisions
and rights given to other groups in
that society on account of their
existence in a particular gender,
religion, cat, race, linguistic group
etc. Here rights are denied not on
the basis of ones individual traits
or characteristics, but on the basis
of the social background that he
belongs to. Social Discrimination
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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

There are Different Types of


Discrimination. The Following Slides Make
a Glance at them

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City Of Diferrences

MARGINALISATION

City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

Gender
Gender discrimination
Discrimination or
or
Gender
Gender bias
Bias is denying some
particular gender groups the
rights and opportunities that
are enjoyed by some other
gender groups of the same
society only because they
belong to this particular
gender. Hence, if a person who
belongs to a particular gender
is denied an opportunity
because that person doesnt
deserve it on the basis of the
qualifying criteria, it cannot be
called gender discrimination
or
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gender bias.

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City Of Diferrences

MARGINALISATION
Racial Discrimination
discrimination is
denying some particular racial
groups the rights and
opportunities that are enjoyed
by some other racial groups of
the same society only because
they belong to this particular
race. Hence, if a person who
belongs to a particular race is
denied an opportunity because
that person doesnt deserve it
on the basis of the qualifying
criteria, it cannot be called
racial discrimination.
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City Of Diferrences

MARGINALISATION

City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

Cast
is denying
Cast discrimination
Based Discrimination
some particular cast groups
the rights and opportunities
that are enjoyed by some other
cast groups of the same
society only because they
belong to this particular cast.
Hence, if a person who belongs
to a particular cast is denied an
opportunity because that
person doesnt deserve it on
the basis of the qualifying
criteria, it cannot be called
cast based discrimination. Cast
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Based Discrimination

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City Of Diferrences

MARGINALISATION

City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

Religious
Religious discrimination
Discrimination is
denying some particular
religious groups the rights and
opportunities that are enjoyed
by some other religious groups
of the same society only
because they belong to this
particular religion. Hence, if a
person who belongs to a
particular religion is denied an
opportunity because that
person doesnt deserve it on
the basis of the qualifying
criteria, it cannot be called
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religious discrimination.

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City Of Diferrences

MARGINALISATION
Linguistic Discrimination

Linguistic discrimination is
denying some particular
Linguistic groups the rights
and opportunities that are
enjoyed by some other
linguistic groups of the same
society such getting education
in their own mother tongue.

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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

And it is widely said and discussed that


there have been severe discriminations in
India on the basis of religion, cast, race,
language, gender etc., and for making
such people, too, the part of mainstream,
the Constitution as well as different Govt.
policies offer some positive discrimination
towards such people.

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MARGINALISATION
Then What is Positive
Positive
Discrimination is some
Discrimination?
special privileges and
reservation offered to the
marginalized groups, in
different developmental areas
like education, employment,
administration etc. to fetch
them, too, into the mainstream
of the society. It is also known
as compensatory
discrimination on the argument
that they were marginalized on
account of different historical
and social factors
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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

The following slides


discuss the provisions
and privileges that
Indian Constitution offers
to the marginalized
groups as a part of
Positive Discrimination
Policy.
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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

Article 14
Actually
Says
City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

That all the people should


not be treated in the same
manner, but people belong
to same circumstances
should be treated in the
same manner.eg. Each
person should not be taxed
by the same standard, but
the people of the same
circumstances should be
taxed by the same standard
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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

Hence
Article 14
Does say
City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

That all the people should


not be considered for
admission for educational
institution or appointment for
the govt. sector on the basis
of same criteria, but people
of same circumstances shall
be considered on the basis of
same criteria

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MARGINALISATION
City Of Diferrences

So its clear that Artic14 Offers special


privileges for the Marginalized Groups

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Indian Constitution offers


MARGINALISATION
Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for
women and children ( Actually the Article is for Prohibition of discrimination on grounds
of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. How ever, on the basis of this the state
should not hesitate to offer special provisions for such people)

Nothing in this article or in clause ( 2 ) of Article 29 shall prevent the State from making
any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward
classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes ( clause ( 2 ) of
Article 29 says that no citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution
maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion,
race, caste, language or any of them)

So the Indian Constitution says that the state shall not misinterpret the main clause
of the Article 15 and clause (2) of the Article 29 for denying the special provision for
the marginalized ones.

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Indian Constitution offers


MARGINALISATION
Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden The
enforcement of any disability arising out of Untouchability shall be an offence
punishable in accordance with law
So Article 17 strictly prohibits segregation on the basis of religion or cast or such issue in classrooms and school
campuses, which often make students from such circumstances stop their education uncompleted .

All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have


the right to establish and administer educational institutions of
their choice
The state shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions,
discriminate against any educational institution on the
ground that it is under the management of a minority,
whether based on religion or language

So Article 30 ensures that the people of Minority groups also get enough opportunity
for gaining proper education so that to be a part of the mainstream .
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MARGINALISATION
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Whoever has sexual


intercourse with a person
who is and whom he
knows or has reason to
believe to be the wife of
another man, without the
consent or connivance of
that man, such sexual
intercourse not
amounting to the offence
of rape, is guilty of the
offence of adultery, and
shall be punished with
imprisonment of either
description for a term
which may extend to five
years, or with fine, or
with both. In such case
the wife shall not be
City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear
punishable
as an abettor

It shall be the endeavor of every


State and of every local authority
within the State to provide
adequate facilities for instruction
in the mother-tongue at the
primary stage of education to
children belonging to linguistic
minority groups; and the
President may issue such
directions to any State as he
considers necessary or proper for
securing the provision of such
facilities

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MARGI
NALISA
TION
City Of Diferrences

Fairly comparable to
exclusion, marginality
is also an awkward term
which has been
used in manifold and
varied ways. Although it is
frequently applied in the
field of urban studies,
it has a rather fuzzy
history and, as a
consequence, it has even
been argued that the
term lacks specificity and
precision and this makes
its use as a scientific tool
questionable

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FEAR
City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

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FEAR?
Culture of
fear(orclimate of fear)
is the concept that people
may incitefearin the
general public to achieve
political goals through
emotional bias.

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FEAR?

City Of Diferrences : Ineuality Marginalisation

As we search for answers to the question


of the great inequities in our world, it
becomes clear that the fundamental
problem is not simply a balance sheet,
but the moral condition of our society.
One of the greatest indicators of
societys disease is the concept of
private property in land, a legal concept
for which there can be no moral basis
and which stands as the greatest cause
of the inequitable distribution of wealth,
resulting in class discrimination, poverty,
and cycles of recession and
depression.Our quest toward true
equality and a just society must begin in
the most fundamental dimension of the
shaping factors of our culture. What is
the true nature of our existence? Is man
an independent being, or is he
interdependent and connected to all
other life in our world? The answer to
this question is really the bottom line to
our social ills. It is thought that man is
an individual with free will, an
independent agent, free to do what he
will. But is he, in a world of warming
resulting from reckless pollution of our
planets air and water in pursuit of
profits? Does that not 11/11/2016
show that man
44 is
truly an interdependent agent operating

Whether we realize it or not, many of


us believe that we have a greater right
to life, beyond that of others. This
illusion is at the heart of almost all
social problems. Each people who
conquer another have had to convince
themselves that somehow the act of
oppression and repression is for the
good of those who are obviously less
intelligent, gallant, cultured or
civilized.

FEAR?

Somehow the project must be sold to


the soldiers, and to the people of the
conquering nation. Its necessary to
becloud peoples thought on all levels
of society. We saw the flawed
reasoning used to invade Iraq recently!
Every policy of slavery and exploitation
has exhibited similarly weird, flawed
reasoning. However, there is a silent,
underlying emotion at work in all these
acts of aggression and oppression: the
fear of want, in its many faces. Our
fear is used to inflame our instinct for
self-preservation. Over and over, very
small groups of wealthy, power-seeking
people have raised the alarms and
herded the sheepish masses into a
toxic inferno of blind hatred, based on
fear.
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City Of Diferrences : Ineuality Marginalisation

FEAR?

Fear-based emotions grossly distort


and compromise the ability to
perceive reality. Both sides of a
conflict become blinded by the pain of
past perceptions, making peace seem
impossible.

SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS


OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

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46

FEAR?
The Palestinian and Israeli conflict is
one such example. Each side is
trapped in the past. Other examples
include the history of the slave trade
here in America, and the annihilation
of Native American cultures. The
collective consciousness of such a
people can become dominated by an
overwhelming fear. Numerous studies
have indicated that Blacks are
preoccupied with fear of government
conspiracies against then. Whites fear
a Black unity that may demand and
achieve retribution. The mere
mention of these examples will most
likely make the reader uncomfortable;
the power of prejudice and its
underlying fear is real.
SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS
OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

City Of Diferrences : Ineuality Marginalisation

47

FEAR?
The Palestinian and Israeli conflict is
one such example. Each side is
trapped in the past. Other examples
include the history of the slave trade
here in America, and the annihilation
of Native American cultures. The
collective consciousness of such a
people can become dominated by an
overwhelming fear. Numerous studies
have indicated that Blacks are
preoccupied with fear of government
conspiracies against then. Whites fear
a Black unity that may demand and
achieve retribution. The mere
mention of these examples will most
likely make the reader uncomfortable;
the power of prejudice and its
underlying fear is real.
SOURCE:ADDRESSING HORIZONTAL INEQUALITIES AS DRIVERS
OF CONFLICT IN THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
Henk-Jan Brinkman (United Nations Peacebuilding Support
Office)
Larry Attree (Saferworld)
Saa Hezir (Columbia University)

11/11/2016

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48

TO BE
CONTINUED

The Politics Of Urban Differences

CONSENSUS TO
CONFLICT
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The Politics Of Urban


Differences

CONSENSUS
TO CONFLICT
The conflict helix is a process of conflict
which originates in the sociocultural space
of meanings, values, norms, status, and
class. It is at one time a structure, the
opposition of attitudes, at another a
situation, the opposition and awareness of
different interests. It may be latent until the
will initiates action, or resolved through
abnegation or resignation of interests. Or it
may be manifest as opposing interests
strive to overcome and balance each other.
In any case, conflict eventuates in a balance
of interests, capabilities, and wills--in a
structure of expectations enabling solidary
and contractual interactions, producing
order, and ensuring correct social
predictions. But eventually such structures
and changes in the underlying balance
become incongruent, leading to disruption
by some trigger event. A new process of
conflict then ensues, resolving in a new
balance that is built on the previous ones.

City Of Diferrences : In-equality - Marginalisation - Fear

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