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ERAY ARIK
2008636009
DEPARTMENT
OF IR
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`  I) The reasons of the WWI
 The Process of starting the WWI: The
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
 The Real Reason of the WWI:    


 and the Descriptions of Balance of Power
`  II) How did the Balance of Power
collapse in Europe?
 The Role of Prussia in the Balance of Power
` Otto von Bismarck and His political Strategy: Realpolitic
` The Completing of Political Unity of German
` PartIII) Conclusion: The Collapse of Balance
of Power in Europe
The date is on June 28, 1914.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of
Austria was visiting to
Sarajevo with her wife,
Princess Sophie von
Hohenberg.
Franz Ferdinand and his wife
were killed by Gavrilo Princip
at approximately 01.15 p.m.
On Sunday.

After this assassination, a big war called WWI started


in 1914.
What was real reason of this war? Was Archduke
Franz Ferdinand killed by Gavrilo Princip? Or what
else were there reasons?
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` Industrialization,
` Searching raw materials and new
markets,
` Political and economic competition,
` Arms race,
` Unified Germany and Unified Italy,
` Nationalism,
` The blocs of some states: the Allies
(Triple Entente) and Central Powers
(Alliance) and so forth
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All of these are a reason of this horrible
war. But are these real reasons of the
World War 1, according to you?

What was real and general reason


which caused this war? Real and general
reason of this war was that the   


 in Europe collapsed.

Ok, what is the balance of power that


time?
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` A situation in which political or military strength is shared evenly.
(  


  
 )
` A phrase in international law for such a "just equilibrium"
between the members of the family of nations as should prevent
any one of them from becoming sufficiently strong to enforce its
will upon the rest. (    
  
)
` A doctrine and an arrangement whereby the power of one state or
group of states is checked by the countervailing power of other
states. (?
 



  
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` In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is
parity or stability between competing forces. As a term in
international law for a 'just equilibrium' between the members of
the family of nations, it expresses the doctrine intended to prevent
any one nation from becoming sufficiently strong so as to enable it
to enforce its will upon the rest. (   

  
 
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$     
 )
The Balance
of Power
was founded
by these
leaders in
Europe. And
they
conducted
the policies
to protect
this
  . I
am going to
tell you how
the    
of

collapsed.
THE ROLE OF PRUSSIA IN THE
BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE
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Otto von Bismarck is important
for the role of Prussia in the
balance of power like Klemens
Wenzel von Metternich for the
role of Austria in the balance
of power.

Otto von Bismarck who provided to


transform to a powerful empire from a
confederation of Germany in 19th century
was the first chancellor. Otto von
Bismarck who has the Count of
Schnhausen and the Duke of Lauenburg
tried to found New Germany with 


 
. Thats why; the iron
chancellor was given to Bismarck.
When Wilhelm I, who became the King of Prussia in
January, 1861 wanted to increase the expenditure
regarding to military, the liberals in the Prussia
Parliament didnt allow him. So William I appointed
Bismarck as the chancellor. Bismarck who started to
work as the chancellor on September 22, 1862 said at
the parliament that big problems would be solved with
just the 

 
. And he conducted the policies
regarding to this.
After this event, Bismarck dissolved the parliament
and he said that he hadnt recognize any power outside
of the King.
Bismarck who supported Tsarist Russia at the
revolt in Poland tried to correct the relationships
with Russia. After that he signed a trade agreement
with France. This agreement was also effective for
other German Princes which were governed by
Prussia. So Austria stayed out of this agreement.
Bismarck who wanted to found the Unified
Germany started a war to Denmark with Austria in
the name of German Confederation. Schleswig and
Holstein which were German the majority of the
population were taken from Denmark. Schleswig
was annexed by Prussia and Holstein was annexed
by Austria.
The next year Bismarck occupied Holstein
after he persuaded France and Tsarist Russia to
be neutral. Then he notified that German
Confederation had ended and he entered to
Bohemia with the armies of Prussia. In 1866
Austrian armies were beaten in Sadowa.
However, Bismarck didnt go onto them with his
armies. In fact, he has power enough to arrive at
Vienna. But he knew that he could need Austria
in the future. After the war, with a treaty
Austria was expelled from the Northern German
Confederation which the leader was Prussia.

During these skirmishes, Bismarck went onto the


princes who didnt want to recognise the authority of
Prussia and he occupied the lands of them. In the
result of these, the first stage was succeeded to be
founded a Unified Germany by unifying the German
Princes under a federation.
After that a parliament called Reichstag which
the members were elected by the community
established. Besides Federal Council that members
were appointed by every German Princes founded. Its
name is Bundesrat.
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A main objective of Bismarck was to prevent other major powers allying with
France.

Bismarck who applied different diplomacy by


making complicated agreements and alliances in
the foreign policy made a reality his dream of
Unified Germany. He used realpolitic to succeed
this.
m

Realpolitic refers to
try to reach by depending on realities and facts instead of any ideals or
theorems. This term is German and the name father of  
 is
Otto von Bismarck. But now it passed to other languages as a term of
foreign policy.

? 
 was described differently. Another description is that
politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations,
rather than ideological notions or moralistic premises. In this respect, it
shares aspects of its philosophical approach with those of realism and
pragmatism. The term realpolitic that is often used pejoratively to
imply politics that are coercive, amoral, or Machiavellian is a theory of
politics that focuses on considerations of power, not ideals, morals, or
principles.

According to Rodrigo Borja, realpolitic defines as the principle on which


nations act, in their foreign policies that are driven by their own
interests instead of altruism, friendship, idealism or solidarity
considerations and power has a decisive role in
international relations.
People or states who apply  

protect the interests of their countries
and they consider that others would do
the same thing. The person who
applied this policy the best was Otto
von Bismarck. He used  

mercilessly to found Unified Germany.
Nowadays the USA has been using
 
 the best.

These are important points: if a state


wants to use  
 , it must be
powerful at both of domestic and
foreign policies. Because the states that
are powerful at the Foreign Policy can
be effective on other states. Besides,
the pressures of public opinion prevent
that only the aim of the state is the
interests of it.
CONCLUSION: THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE
REALPOLITIC
TO WELTPOLITIC AND the WWI
Friedrich III became the emperor
when Wilhelm I died in March
1888. After Friedrich III died,
Wilhelm II became the emperor.
Wilhelm II and the rulers who
were appointed as the chancellor
after Otto von Bismarck
commented realpolitic mistakenly
and Realpolitic transformed to
weltpolitic. According to them, the
security of Germany depended on
that Germany must become
powerful.
Germany which got stronger at the military field started to become a threat
in Middle Europe for other states of Europe. The desires of Germany
regarding to becoming strong in the sea and getting colonies damaged the
relationships between Germany and the UK. Because of Alsace-Lorraine that
were taken by Germany from France with Sedan War, the relationships
between Germany and France harmed. Lastly, Russia wasnt pleased that
Germany supported Austria in the Balkans.
When Germany and Italy completed their political unity, the
   

 had already collapsed. Then, Powerful Germany
in Middle Europe reminded to European States Holly Roman
Empire and Napoleon Bonaparte that wanted to govern all of
Europe. The European States which was afraid of this began to
take up arms against Germany and tried to increase their military
power. Founding the alliances between states completely
destroyed the balance of power. The alliances in Middle Ages were
more flexible. A state could join any alliance by separating from
another when that state wanted and so the    was been
protecting.
When the activities of
mobilization of states for a general war
left diplomacy to a side, the states needed
only one reason for starting of this
general war. Archduke Franz Ferdinand
gave this reason to European States. The
assassination of him in Sarajevo became
the fire which started the war.
Together with industrialization, the
necessity of raw materials and markets
and nationalism, the collapse of a four-
hundred-year-old the    was more
effective on starting the WWI. Unified
Germany and Unified Italy sped up this
process.
Real reason
of WWII which occurred in 1939, in fact, is
the   

. Because after the
WWI, this balance couldnt be established
again. The Treaty of Versailles sped up this
process. John Maynard Keynes had already
realized the importance of the   . In
Versailles Congress he said to the
participants that if we wanted to protect
Europe as a whole, we need Germany. He
was right. Some years later, in 1929, Great
Depression happened. After that the WWII
occurred in 1939. The    


could be established again after the Cold
War.
Was    


 really
established again
after the Cold War?
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, Tkiye
Bankas Kltr Edition, page 95-130 ; 130-
162 ; 162-195 and 195-212.
2. Oral Sander, Political History, Until 1918
from Ancient Times, page 220-225 ; 245-247 ;
251-254.
` tr.wikipedia.org
` en.wikipedia.org
` turkcebilgi.com
` bibilgi.com
` britannia.com
` sozluk.net
THANK YOU FOR
LISTENING ME
PATIENTLY!!!
AND
QUESTIONS